Presentation on theme: "Do I Really Have to Listen in a Speaking Class?? How to listen effectively."— Presentation transcript:
Do I Really Have to Listen in a Speaking Class?? How to listen effectively
Hearing vs. Listening Hearing means being able to detect sounds. Listening means getting meaning from sounds that are heard. As a good listener you can Develop your interpersonal skills Discover unexpected insights Increase your knowledge and your ability to evaluate Improve your performance in school and at work
Analyzing factors that affect listening Your physical and mental state ◦ Attentive listening requires energy and focus ◦ Are you tired or hungry? Are you thinking about your personal problems? The speaker -- How well do you respond to the personality of the speaker? Some people attract us; some people annoy us.
More factors that affect listening… Your prejudices ◦ A prejudice is a prejudgment or bias—a belief you have already formed that may not be grounded in facts. You might block real listening by starting out with fixed ideas of what is right or wrong, interesting or boring. The environment --- Listeners have to constantly confront a number of environmental factors: temperature, light, noise, space, seating, and other people
Evaluating a Speaker’s Reasoning An important part of being an effective listener is evaluating a speaker’s reasoning, or logical thinking. Faulty reasoning may sound like a contradiction, but it is all too common. Several types of faulty reasoning exist.
Type 1: Hasty Generalizations Generalizations are general conclusions or opinions drawn from particular observations. These may contain qualifying words like most, some, generally. Hasty generalizations are conclusions or opinions that are drawn from very few observations or that ignore exceptions.
Example: Hasty generalization Seeing John turn his paper in late today, a classmate might make the hasty generalization that John never turns his work in on time. ◦ Today may be the only time John has turned in a paper late. Basing a conclusion on only one observation is faulty reasoning.
Type 2: Begging the Question This means assuming the truth of a statement before it is proven. Listeners must be careful to see that speakers have actually proven what they claim as fact.
Example: Begging the question A speaker says, “With my plan, this country’s failed and ineffective health care system can be remedied within a decade.” ◦ The speaker has given no proof that the country’s health care system is an ineffective failure.
Type 3: False Premises A premise is a stated or implied starting point for an argument. It is assumed to be true. A false premise is a premise that is untrue or distorted.
Example: False Premises We’re bound to have a winning team this year. Five of our starters are back. ◦ This statement is built on the premise that experience ensures skill and success. This is not entirely true. The five returning players may be mediocre.
Type 4: False Analogies Analogy is a form of reasoning by comparison. A good analogy draws valid conclusions from items that can be logically compared. A false analogy draws invalid conclusions from weak or often far- fetched comparisons.
Example: False Analogies A band member says to a friend, “I wish you’d learned to play the saxophone so you could join the marching band. Since you play the violin so well, I’m sure you could learn the sax easily. ◦ Playing the violin well does not ensure that one can also play a saxophone well. The skills needed are very different.
Type 5: Irrelevant Evidence This is information that has nothing to do with the argument being made. The evidence may sound impressive, but unless it is related to the point at hand, you should ignore it.
Example: Irrelevant Evidence The merchandise at the Ulta store is top quality. The manager has items shipped in from all over the world. ◦ The fact that the items come from all over the world is an irrelevant detail that does not support the conclusion that the merchandise is top quality. The manager could be searching worldwide for cheap goods.
Identify the type of faulty reasoning: 1. With my plan, the school’s unfair rules will be changed. 2. I saw a sixteen-year-old girl run a stop light. You just can’t trust teenage drivers. 3. Our debate team should win the competition. The coach was a national champion. 4. I know you’ll like this cake. It cost twenty dollars.
Examining Propaganda Techniques Persuasion is the attempt to convince others to do something or to change a belief of their own free will. Propaganda is persuasion that deliberately discourages people from thinking for themselves. Because its sole purpose is to spread information and claims that further— or – destroy a cause, idea, product, or person, propaganda at its worst relies on one-sided or distorted arguments.
Propaganda Because its sole purpose is to spread information and claims that further—or – destroy a cause, idea, product, or person, propaganda at its worst relies on one- sided or distorted arguments. Persuasion also relies heavily on emotional appeals. They are acceptable
Types of propaganda Transfer: ◦ A method that builds a connection between things that are not logically connected. In advertising this connection is built between a product and a positive value. Example: An ad might show a prosperous, happy, loving family drinking a certain brand of milk. The goal is to get the viewer to associate the brand of milk with prosperity.
Types of Propaganda cont. Bandwagon: a technique that encourages people to act because everyone else is doing it. It attempts to substitute peer or crowd pressure for analysis of an issue or action. Example: Someone says that you should vote for a proposal because all your friends are voting for it; however, no one mentions why the proposal is worth supporting.
Types of propaganda cont. Name-calling ◦ Is labeling intended to arouse powerful, negative feelings. Its purpose is to represent a particular person or group as inferior or bad without providing evidence to support the claim. Example: A speaker might ask you to vote against a candidate because that candidate is a “warmonger,” “a tree hugger,” or an “egghead.”
Types of propaganda cont. Card-stacking is based on half-truths. It presents only partial information in order to leave an inaccurate impression. Example: A speaker might refer to a person who has amassed a fortune through intimidation and illegal means as a “good breadwinner.” This phrase tells only part of the story since it ignores the negative methods the person used to become a breadwinner.
Types of propaganda cont. Stereotypes: ◦ Is a biased belief about a whole group of people based on insufficient or irrelevant evidence. It ignores the individual. Example: A co-worker might say, “Surely you don’t plan to discuss the issue with the president of the company! Presidents are too interested in profit and personal gain to care about the problems of a single employee.”
Types of propaganda cont. Loaded words: ◦ These words evoke, or draw out, very strong positive or negative attitudes toward a person, group, or idea. The “load” they carry is connotation in addition to the denotation of the word. Example: In discussing assertive behavior, Nan describes herself as “confident,” Chris as “pushy,” and Rita as a “braggart.”
Types of propaganda cont. Emotional appeals: ◦ Are statements used to arouse emotional reactions and can be appropriately used in persuasion. However, when emotional appeals distort the truth or provoke irrational desires and fears, they become propaganda techniques. ◦ Example: To gain support for the local humane society, a speaker might tell moving stories about the disposal of animals because of limited resources.