Presentation on theme: "1. What is the name of the Hindu sacred text?"— Presentation transcript:
11. What is the name of the Hindu sacred text? Warm-Up1. What is the name of the Hindu sacred text?2. How long do Hindus believe a soul will be reincarnated?Answer:Vedas-orally passed downSouls are reincarnated until they reach moksha & are united with Brahman
2What is the language of the Vedas & who brought it to India? Warm-UpWhat is the language of the Vedas & who brought it to India?What was the name of the warrior class in the Hindu caste system?Answer:1.Sanskrit, Aryans2. KSHATRIYA
3Introduction to Hinduism “There is only one God, but endless are his aspects and endless are his names”Introduction to Hinduism
4The vast majority of Hindus live in India and Nepal
5The Ganges River Falling from its source of Vishnu’s feet onto Shiva’s head and outfrom his hair, the water of the Ganges is sacred enough to purify all sins.
6What is Hinduism?Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in the world.The religion developed in India, taking much from the religion practiced by the Aryans, a group who had invaded the country from the north around 1500 B.C.Hinduism is a polytheistic religion.The Hindu religion developed from the Vedas, or the Books of Knowledge.This book also came from the Aryan priests and contains complicated rituals and hymns.
7Aryan influence on hinduism Sanskrit – this was the language of the Aryans. It is the language they spoke when they arrived in the Indus ValleyThe most important indicator of Aryan wealth was based on the number of cattle that an individual owned. The more cattle a family owned the more wealthy they were. Eventually cattle became so important that they made it illegal to kill or eat them.Over time the Aryan religion slowly evolved into what we know today as Hinduism. The Aryans were polytheistic- they believed in many gods.
8VedasFor many hundreds of years the Aryans did not have a written language. Instead, they passed their history down from one generation to another though stories, poems, and epics. These oral histories would be memorized, word for word, and handed down, insuring that future generations would not forget their past.Around 1200 B.C. the Aryans developed a written language. The oral traditions that had been handed downwere recorded in sacred books called Vedas, or “Books of Knowledge”.
9What do Hindus believe? Hindus believe in many gods (polytheistic) . All gods are part of a supreme spirit– BrahmanThere are the main three gods known to Hindus around the world:Brahman – the CreatorShiva - DestroyerVishnu - Preserver
10Vishnu - PreserverBrahman – the CreatorShiva - Destroyer
11All these deities are but Manifest forms (attributesand functions) of theimpersonal Brahman
12Hindu beliefHow a person lives their current life will determine the form they will take in the next life. If they live a good life, and fulfill all their duties, they might be born into a higher class in the next life. If they live poorly, they might be born into a lower life, or even into a lower life form, such as a beetle, or snake. People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a higher caste as a human.
13Two central themes of hinduism Reincarnation – You are continually born into this world lifetime after lifetime. The soul goes through a series of rebirths, as it strives to obtain a oneness with the universal spirit. They believe that when a person dies, they will be reborn again, living many lives, until they have perfected themselves. This state of perfection is called moksha.
14When one obtained this state of Moksha their cycle of rebirth after rebirth would finally stop, and they would live in eternal happiness.
15Karma – spiritual impurity due to actions keeps us bound to this world (good and bad). A person’s actions determine what will happen after his/her death. Every action produces a justified effect based on its moral worthiness. Determines all the particular circumstances and situations of one’s lifeUltimate goal of life – to reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman.
16How does Hinduism impact daily life ? Respect for all life – vegetarianHuman life as supreme:Four “stations” of life (Caste) - priests & teachers, nobles & warriors, merchant class, servant classFour stages of life – student, householder, retired, renunciationFour duties of life – pleasure, success, social responsibilities, religious responsibilities
17Caste System Grew out of Aryan tribal social system – belief that people are not equalA main characteristic of HinduismEvery person is born to a particular status for his/her lifeWhat caste you are in can determine who you marry, what job you will have, who your friends are…..
18The top or most powerful caste was the Brahmans, the priests and leaders. There were only a few of them. Only Brahman men were allowed to go to school, or to teach in schools (Brahman women could not go to school).BRAHMANS(priests/leaders)Next were the Kshatriya, or warriors. There were not very many Kshatriyas. A lot of them were in the army, or leaders in other ways. Women could not be warriors, but they could be Kshatriyas anywayKSHATRIYA(warriors/princes)VAISHYAS(farmers/traders)Below them were the vaishyas, or farmers and traders, who owned their own farms or businesses. There were a lot of them, too.SHUDRASServants/farmhandsThe lowest of the castes was the shudras - the servants and farmhands who did not own their own business or their own land, and who had to work for other people. But gradually a lot of land-owning farmers fell into this caste, too. Probably the largest number of people belonged to this caste.
19UNTOUCHABLESThere were really four castes, and then the lowest group had no caste, and were known as Untouchables. Untouchables usually did the worst jobs, like collecting garbage, dealing with the bodies of dead animals (like the sacred cattle that wander Indian villages) or unclaimed dead humans, tanning leather, from such dead animals, and manufacturing leather goods, and cleaning up the human and animal waste , for which, in traditional villages ,there is no sewer system .
20What are the spiritual practices of Hinduism? The Four Yogas - seeking union with the divine:Karma Yoga – the path of action through selfless service (releases built up karma without building up new karma)Jnana Yoga – the path of knowledge (understanding the true nature of reality and the self)Raja Yoga – the path of meditationBhakti Yoga – the path of devotionGuru – a spiritual teacher, especially helpful for teaching one about yoga
21Banaras - Hindu’s Holy City Many people from all over the world make a pilgrimmage here to bathe in theGanges. Countless Hindus come to Banaras to die.It has 1500 temples, most of them devoted to Shiva.It is a gathering place for the religiously learned and their disciples.
22Sacred Cow of IndiaCows are considered sacred in Hindu religion. The cow like all animals is sacred because it is a reincarnation of human souls. Many Hindu's choose a vegetarian diet because of this belief. The cow is treated as holy because he/she provides strength to plow the fields, milk to give nutrition to humans and leather from their skins upon death. Because of all they provide cows are considered the mothers to humans and therefore should be treated with respect and never eaten.The cow represents life and the sustainance of life to the Hindu. It represents the soul, obstinate intellect, unruly emotions, but the cow supersedes us because it is so giving, taking nothing but grass and grain. It gives and gives and gives, as does the soul give and give and give.The cow is so vital to life, the virtual sustainer of life for humans. In a society if you only had cows and no other domestic animals or agricultural pursuits, you could still survive and the children could survive with the butter, the cream and the milk to feed the children. The cow is a complete ecology, a gentle creature and a symbol of abundance.
23Festivals and Holy Days No set day of the week is holy-each days has its possibilitiesDiwaliDiwali is celebrated for 5 days according to the lunar Hindu Calendar.It begins in late September-October and ends in earlyOctober-November.It is popularly known as the "festival of lights“The most significant spiritual meaning is "the awareness of the inner light".Diwali celebrates this through festive fireworks, lights, flowers, sharing of sweets, and worship.While the story behind Diwali varies from region to region, the essence is the same - to rejoice in the inner light or the underlying reality of all things.
24holiAlso called the Festival of Colors, it is a spring festival celebrated by Hindus.Lasts up to sixteen daysCelebrated by people throwing colored powder and colored water at each other.Celebrated at the end of the winter season on the last full moon day of the lunar month which usually falls in the later part of February or March