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The Late Seventeenth Century. Opera in seventeenth-century France Absolute monarchy — established by Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII Académies – 1635.

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Presentation on theme: "The Late Seventeenth Century. Opera in seventeenth-century France Absolute monarchy — established by Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII Académies – 1635."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Late Seventeenth Century

2 Opera in seventeenth-century France Absolute monarchy — established by Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII Académies – 1635 Académie française (for belles lettres) set up by Richelieu — rationalistic, idealistic, classicistic in sense of restraint, balance – Académie de musique (1669) Ballet de cour – social, participatory with courtiers as dancers – danced in center space in open hall – included instrumental music, spoken narrative and dialogue, airs Opera’s arrival in France – Italian works during regency of Anne of Austria (1643–1653) – nationalism — exploited by librettist Pierre Perrin (ca. 1620–1675) under Louis XIV

3 Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632–1687) Florentine, moved to Paris 1646 Instrumental composer to Louis XIV from 1653 – member of existing Vingt-quatre violons du roi – Petits violons (sixteen, later twenty-one) under Lully from 1656 set new performance standards – superintendent of music from 1661 Comédies-ballets with Molière 1663–1672, e.g., Le bourgeois gentilhomme 1670 – fused music, dance, poetry — developing style – influence of Italian pastoral operas, French ballet de cour 1672 — took over Académie de musique — complete control of musical life in France

4 Tragédies lyriques Lully and Philippe Quinault (1635–1688) Mythological plots with allegorical allusions to France and king French style – five acts — Classic model from Greek antiquity – emphasis on ballet derived from ballet de cour tradition – more chorus than contemporary Italian opera – spectacle — machines, sets – récitatif — carries action, carefully measured, simple – air modeled on French air de cour — nondramatic, often employs dance rhythms and forms – functions of instrumental music articulative — especially overture dramatic — accompaniment to singing dance accompaniments

5 English music in the late seventeenth century Isolation — especially under Cromwell and Commonwealth 1649–1660 Restoration began to recover court following French model

6 English church music in the seventeenth century Beginning of century continued music of English Reformation – Services – full and verse anthems Church musicians abolished under Puritan regime Restoration recovered choral music tradition, including concerted compositions

7 Instrumental music in England Keyboard tradition from sixteenth century – dances – variation sets Ensemble music – fantasy (fancy) for consort of viols – later, Italian-style sonatas

8 Musical drama during the Restoration period Theater music tradition of court masque – recitatives – songs – choruses – dances Theater suppressed during Commonwealth — concerts still permitted Opera after the Stuart Restoration still very limited

9 Henry Purcell (1659–1695) Time of Stuart Restoration, worked in court and Westminster Abbey Sacred works associated with church employment — anthems, services Dramatic music for court milieu – opera Dido and Aeneas – semiopera, e.g., The Fairy Queen Odes and welcome songs — royal welcomes, weddings, birthdays, St. Cecilia’s Day Songs Instrumental — keyboard, ensemble (fantasies, sonatas, etc.)

10 Spanish opera in the seventeenth century Based on pastoral court entertainment tradition — use of mythical, allegorical plots Solo singing – all female in leading parts — except for comic male peasant – not separated into distinct style of recitative and aria but used strophic songs for both dialogue and affective moments Spanish instrumentation — continuo uses harp and guitar Choruses in familiar style

11 Neapolitan opera in the late seventeenth century Naples as focus of stylistic progress in Italy Sharp distinctions – serious vs. comic scenes — later to be split away – solo almost completely displaces chorus, mostly displaces ensembles – recitative extremely differentiated from aria — differentiated as simple, accompagnato; arioso

12 Da capo aria design ARitornellohome key Solomodulating Ritornellocontrast key Solomodulating Ritornello home key B Solomodulating Ada capo — ornamented in performance

13 Cantata Chamber vocal genre (cubicularis) for – voice (possibly voices) – continuo (possibly obbligato instruments) Multiple movements Vocal styles of opera – recitative – aria

14 Later seventeenth-century instrumental genres Organ music, Suite, Sonata, Concerto

15 German organ music in the late seventeenth century

16 Two classifications of organ compositions Frei — figurational material; free from contrapuntal texture – prelude, toccata, etc. Gebunden — based on established melodic material, follows contrapuntal rules – chorale-based pieces – fugues

17 Chorale settings for organ Chorale fugue — chorale melody treated in fugal texture Chorale fantasia — extended elaborations of each phrase with repetitions and interruptions in c.f. Chorale prelude — one more-or-less continuous statement of chorale melody as c.f. – c.f. with or without ornamentation — ornamentation usually only if c.f. is soprano – accompaniment either independent or derivative — Vorimitation Chorale partita — series of short chorale settings in contrasting styles – alternatim usage in service — organ, choir, congregation

18 Fugue Antecedents – sixteenth-century imitative pieces based on vocal models — ricercar (from motet) and canzona (from chanson) – early seventeenth-century monothematic fantasia or ricercar Theoretical and stylistic principles in mature fugue – monothematicism – subjects more instrumental in melodic and rhythmic profile, unlike ricercar and fantasia – tonal answer – countersubject – tonal unity and plan for entire piece – pedal point — especially approaching final cadence – stretto, especially for end of piece

19 The French keyboard suite (ordre) Importance of dance — court ballet tradition Harpsichord — intimate style suited to taste of courtly amateurs Rhythm — derived from dance styles Melody — agréments; ornamented doubles Forms – binary dance form — variety of midpoint cadence choices – rondeau

20 Standard order of dances in the late seventeenth-century suite Derived from publication of suites by Johann Jacob Froberger (1616–1667) Allemande — duple meter, moderate tempo Courante — flowing triple meter (often with hemiola) Sarabande — slow triple meter, emphasis on second beat 2 of the measure Gigue — fast compound meter

21 Two important French suite composers Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre (1665–1729) François Couperin "le grand" (1668–1733) — often used descriptive titles rather than dance names, turning dance movements into character pieces

22 Sonata Scoring – violin(s) or other melodic instruments and b.c. – instrumental idiom, not vocal style Ensembles – trio sonata — duet and b.c. most popular combines clarity of b.c. texture with polyphonic interest – solo sonata — solo and b.c. allows for more virtuosity Major composer — Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713)

23 Sonata types Sonata da camera (chamber sonata) – stylized dances — actually a dance suite Sonata da chiesa (church sonata) – abstract movements (at least ostensibly) – alternating tempos, usually slow-fast-slow-fast

24 Concerto Derived from sonata by reinforcing some passages with multiple instruments Two major composers – Giuseppe Torelli (1658–1709) —established structural principles – Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741) — worked out types of material to exploit principles of form

25 Concerto types Ripieno (full) concerto — uses all instruments freely Solo concerto — solo vs. ripieno group Concerto grosso — concertino group (often trio group) vs. ripieno

26 Form in the Baroque concerto Three movements (usually) — fast, slow, fast Outer movements usually in ritornello form: RitornelloSoloRitornelloSoloRitornello TuttiSolo and b.c. TuttiSolo and b.c. Tutti Home key→ → →Contrast key→ → →Home key

27 Questions for discussion How did political structures affect musical life and express themselves through musical style in the late seventeenth century? Why would it be appropriate to describe a large Italian opera aria as a concerto movement for voice? What significant differences are there between the two structures? How did the idea of affective expression and of key center support large forms in instrumental and vocal music in the seventeenth century?

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