Presentation on theme: "Evolution of the Bhutanese Legal System and Judicial Procedure Drangpon Tharchean Bhutan National Legal Institute."— Presentation transcript:
Evolution of the Bhutanese Legal System and Judicial Procedure Drangpon Tharchean Bhutan National Legal Institute
Historical Backgroun d 1614 – Chayig Chhenmo 1652 – Codification of Law Completed Code based on fundamental teachings of Buddhism Addressed violations of both secular and temporal laws Ten pious acts – Lhachoe Gyewa Chu Sixteen virtuous acts of social piety – Michoe Tsangma Chudrug 1636 – First set of Bhutanese Law
Zhabdrung’s Code It’s a basis of Bhutanese legal system Amended several times – 10 th Desi Mipham Wangpo consolidated and amended certain parts In mid-18 th Century, 13 th Desi Choegyal Sherab Wangchuk incorporated amendments First and second kings made further modifications Principles of Buddhism and natural justice have not changed and have always been upheld. Evolved over centuries reflecting culture and traditional lifestyles, keeping stream of justice clear and pure
Thrimzhung Chhenmo His Majesty Third King’s reign the National Assembly of Bhutan enacted the first comprehensive codified laws known as the Thrimzhung Chhenmo or the Supreme Law. Almost all modern categories of criminal offenses and corresponding penalties were enshrined under this provisions. His Majesty the Fourth King initiated various amendments and enactments of laws to respond fully and effectively to the changing needs of our nation
Development of Bhutanese Judiciary 1961 – Appointment of Judges and separation of powers1968 – Establishment of High Court1978 – Establishment of Sub-District Court2008 – Adoption of Constitution
Structure of Courts Supreme CourtHigh CourtDistrict CourtSub-District Court
Judicial Process 1.Informal Process The Court system in Bhutan is established only in 1960s Mediation –Thrimshung Chhenmo Adjudication without Proceedings – Chapter 23 of the Civil and Criminal Procedure Code 2001 Alternative Dispute Resolution Act 2013 The parties can also receive assistance of a Gup, Chipon, Mang-mi or Barmi, as mediators. The final settlement must be through voluntary consent and signed by the parties and mediators.
Judicial Process Contd Formal Process Only a judge duly appointed by His Majesty is empowered to hear and decide cases Drangpons were appointed in few Dzongkhags in 1960 High Court established in 1968 A judiciary established separate from Legislature and Executive, fully independent in the exercise of its function Civil and Criminal Procedure Code, 2001 and Constitution, 2008
Conclusion As the informal or the traditional mechanism of dispute settlement played a vital role in Bhutan, there is a need to promote and strengthen this system at the grass roots level. It is hoped that with this symposium, the awareness on the system of legal aid is created in the country.