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GRAMMAR: NUMERALS Petr Novotný Gymnázium Dr. Karla Polesného Znojmo

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CONTENTS This presentation contains basic English number words and numeric expressions such as: Cardinal Numerals Ordinal Numerals Multiplicative Numerals Decimal Numbers Fractions and Percentages.

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TYPES OF NUMERALS Cardinal Numerals (=číslovky základní): are used to refer to a size of a group ( one, two,...) Ordinal Numerals (=číslovky řadové): are used to refer to a position in a sequence or order (first, second,...) Multiplicative Numerals (=číslovky násobné): are used to express how many times something happened or exists (once, twice,...)

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CARDINAL, ORDINAL, AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS [1] CARDINALORDINALMULTIPLICATIVE 1 one1st firstonce 2 two2nd secondtwice 3 three3rd thirdthree times / thrice 4 four4th fourthfour times 5 five5th fifth (× five)five times 6 six6th sixthsix times 7 seven7th seventhseven times 8 eight8th eightheight times 9 nine9th ninth (× nine)nine times 10 ten10th tenthten times Numerals written in bold are irregular in form or spelling.

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CARDINAL, ORDINAL, AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS [2] CARDINALORDINALMULTIPLICATIVE 11 eleven11th eleventheleven times 12 twelve12th twelfth (× twelve)twelve times 13 thirteen (× three)13th thirteenththirteen times 14 fourteen14th fourteenthfourteen times 15 fifteen (× five)15th fifteenthfifteen times 16 sixteen16th sixteenthsixteen times 17 seventeen17th seventeenthseventeen times 18 eighteen (× eight)18th eighteentheighteen times 19 nineteen19th nineteenthnineteen times 20 twenty10th twentieth (× twenty)twenty times Numerals written in bold are irregular in form or spelling.

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CARDINAL, ORDINAL, AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS [3] CARDINALORDINALMULTIPLICATIVE 21 twenty-one21st twenty-firsttwenty-one times 22 twenty-two22nd twenty-secondtwenty-two times 23 twenty-three23rd twenty-thirdtwenty-three times 24 twenty-four24th twenty-fourthtwenty-four times... 30 thirty (× three)30th thirtieth (× thirty)thirty times... 35 thirty-five35th thirty-fifththirty-five times 40 forty (× four)40th fortieth (× forty)forty times 50 fifity (× five)50th fiftieth (× fifty)fifty times 60 sixty60th sixtieth (× sixty)sixty times 70 seventy70th seventieth (× seventy)seventy times 80 eighty (× eight)80th eightieth (× eighty)eighty times 90 ninety90th ninetieth (× ninety)ninety times 100 a/one hundred100th a/one hundredtha/one hundred times

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"0" IN ENGLISH There are several names for the number 0 in English: 'nought' in British English 'zero' in mathematics and for temperature 'oh' in telephone and decimal numbers 'nil' in sport results 'love' in tennis

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DECIMAL NUMBERS the integer part is read as a whole number the decimal point is pronounced 'point' in the fractional part the numbers are read one by one This example: sixteen point two five seven. 16.257 integer part (the part to the left of the decimal separator) fractional part (the part from the decimal separator to the right) decimal point (the decimal separator) Example:

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FRACTIONS The numerator is read as an cardinal number and the denominator as an ordinal number: 1 / 3 one third;1 / 5 one fifth;1 / 10 one tenth If the numerator is different from one, the ordinal number is in plural: 2 / 3 two thirds; 3 / 5 three fifths;7 / 10 seven tenths Irregular fractions: 1 / 2 one half;1 / 4 one qurter Large fractions: are read numerator over denominator (where both numerator and denominator are read as cardinal). 13 / 75 thirteen over seventy-five Example: 7 / 12 numeratordenominator line or slash

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PERCENTAGES Percentages are usually denoted by the percent sign (%) or the abbreviation pct. In British English percent is sometimes written as two words (per cent); in American English it is usually one word. The word is always singular; the stress is on cent: per'cent. 1 % one percent 5 % five percent 10.2 % ten point two percent.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Leech, G.: An A–Z of English Grammar and Usage. London, Nelson English Language Teaching 1989. Thomson, A. J. and Martinet, A. V.: A Practical English Grammar. Oxford, Oxford University Press 1986. Wikipedia contributors. "English numerals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Mar. 2014.

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