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**Petr Novotný Gymnázium Dr. Karla Polesného Znojmo**

GRAMMAR: NUMERALS Petr Novotný Gymnázium Dr. Karla Polesného Znojmo

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CONTENTS This presentation contains basic English number words and numeric expressions such as: Cardinal Numerals Ordinal Numerals Multiplicative Numerals Decimal Numbers Fractions and Percentages.

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TYPES OF NUMERALS Cardinal Numerals (=číslovky základní): are used to refer to a size of a group (one, two, ...) Ordinal Numerals (=číslovky řadové): are used to refer to a position in a sequence or order (first, second, ...) Multiplicative Numerals (=číslovky násobné): are used to express how many times something happened or exists (once, twice, ...)

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**CARDINAL, ORDINAL, AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS [1]**

1 one 1st first once 2 two 2nd second twice 3 three 3rd third three times / thrice 4 four 4th fourth four times 5 five 5th fifth (× five) five times 6 six 6th sixth six times 7 seven 7th seventh seven times 8 eight 8th eighth eight times 9 nine 9th ninth (× nine) nine times 10 ten 10th tenth ten times Numerals written in bold are irregular in form or spelling.

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**CARDINAL, ORDINAL, AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS [2]**

11 eleven 11th eleventh eleven times 12 twelve 12th twelfth (× twelve) twelve times 13 thirteen (× three) 13th thirteenth thirteen times 14 fourteen 14th fourteenth fourteen times 15 fifteen (× five) 15th fifteenth fifteen times 16 sixteen 16th sixteenth sixteen times 17 seventeen 17th seventeenth seventeen times 18 eighteen (× eight) 18th eighteenth eighteen times 19 nineteen 19th nineteenth nineteen times 20 twenty 10th twentieth (× twenty) twenty times Numerals written in bold are irregular in form or spelling.

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**CARDINAL, ORDINAL, AND MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS [3]**

21 twenty-one 21st twenty-first twenty-one times 22 twenty-two 22nd twenty-second twenty-two times 23 twenty-three 23rd twenty-third twenty-three times 24 twenty-four 24th twenty-fourth twenty-four times ... 30 thirty (× three) 30th thirtieth (× thirty) thirty times 35 thirty-five 35th thirty-fifth thirty-five times 40 forty (× four) 40th fortieth (× forty) forty times 50 fifity (× five) 50th fiftieth (× fifty) fifty times 60 sixty 60th sixtieth (× sixty) sixty times 70 seventy 70th seventieth (× seventy) seventy times 80 eighty (× eight) 80th eightieth (× eighty) eighty times 90 ninety 90th ninetieth (× ninety) ninety times 100 a/one hundred 100th a/one hundredth a/one hundred times

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"0" IN ENGLISH There are several names for the number 0 in English: 'nought' in British English 'zero' in mathematics and for temperature 'oh' in telephone and decimal numbers 'nil' in sport results 'love' in tennis

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DECIMAL NUMBERS 16.257 integer part (the part to the left of the decimal separator) fractional part (the part from the decimal separator to the right) decimal point (the decimal separator) Example: the integer part is read as a whole number the decimal point is pronounced 'point' in the fractional part the numbers are read one by one This example: sixteen point two five seven.

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FRACTIONS 7 / 12 numerator denominator line or slash Example: The numerator is read as an cardinal number and the denominator as an ordinal number: 1 / 3 one third; 1 / 5 one fifth; 1 / 10 one tenth If the numerator is different from one, the ordinal number is in plural: 2 / 3 two thirds; 3 / 5 three fifths; 7 / 10 seven tenths Irregular fractions: 1 / 2 one half; 1 / 4 one qurter Large fractions: are read numerator over denominator (where both numerator and denominator are read as cardinal). 13 / 75 thirteen over seventy-five

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PERCENTAGES Percentages are usually denoted by the percent sign (%) or the abbreviation pct. In British English percent is sometimes written as two words (per cent); in American English it is usually one word. The word is always singular; the stress is on cent: per'cent. 1 % one percent 5 % five percent 10.2 % ten point two percent.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Leech, G.: An A–Z of English Grammar and Usage. London, Nelson English Language Teaching Thomson, A. J. and Martinet, A. V.: A Practical English Grammar. Oxford, Oxford University Press Wikipedia contributors. "English numerals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 19 Mar

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Today we will manipulate very large and very small numbers.

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