Presentation on theme: "PERSUASION WRITING OR SPEAKING THAT TRIES TO CONVINCE OTHERS TO AGREE WITH YOU OR TAKE ACTION THAT THEY MIGHT NOT HAVE TAKEN ON THEIR OWN."— Presentation transcript:
PERSUASION WRITING OR SPEAKING THAT TRIES TO CONVINCE OTHERS TO AGREE WITH YOU OR TAKE ACTION THAT THEY MIGHT NOT HAVE TAKEN ON THEIR OWN
PERSUASIVE ESSAY PRESENTS YOUR POSITION ON AN ISSUE URGES YOUR READER TO ACCEPT THAT POSITION AND MAY ENCOURAGE THEM TO TAKE ACTION
AN EFFECTIVE PERSUASIVE ESSAY… EXPLORES AN ISSUE OF IMPORTANCE TO THE WRITER ADDRESSES AN ISSUE THAT IS ARGUABLE USES FACTS, EXAMPLES, STATISTICS, OR PERSONAL EXPERIENCES TO SUPPORT A POSITION
AN EFFECTIVE PERSUASIVE ESSAY… TRIES TO INFLUENCE ITS AUDIENCE THROUGH APPEALS TO THE READERS’ KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCES, OR EMOTIONS USES CLEAR ORGANIZATION TO PRESENT A LOGICAL ARGUEMENT
PREWRITING CONSIDER AUDIENCE, PURPOSE, ORGANIZATION, EVIDENCE, AND POINTS OF ELABORATION USE A T-CHART, FLOW CHART, LIST, DIAGRAM, OR ANY OTHER FORM OF PREWRITING YOU ARE COMFORTABLE WITH USING ***IF YOU HAVE TROUBLE GETTING IDEAS, TRY DRAWING PICTURES
PREWRITING RESEARCH MAY BE NECESSARY TO COMPLETE PERSUASIVE WRITING WHEN THIS IS NOT POSSIBLE, MAKE UP THE INFORMATION TO THE BEST OF YOUR ABILITY
CONSIDER YOUR AUDIENCE & PURPOSE THE FIRST STEP TO CONVINCING YOUR AUDIENCE IS KNOWING YOUR AUDIENCE KNOW CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS AGE, OCCUPATION, VALUES, & PRIOR KNOWLEDGE THE SPECIFIC AUDIENCE YOU EXPECT TO ADDRESS WILL AFFECT THE WAY YOU PERSUADE THEM
GATHERING EVIDENCE PROVIDE ARGUMENTS & EXAMPLES THAT SUPPORT YOU POSITION ADDRESS COUNTER-ARGUMENTS THAT CAN BE USED TO ATTACK YOUR IDEAS
GATHERING EVIDENCE USE INTERVIEWS OR SURVEYS – MAKE NOTE OF THE CONCERNS OF THE PEOPLE AROUND YOU FIND OUT WHAT EXPERTS SAY THAT WILL SUPPORT YOUR POSITION REMEMBER: YOU CAN MAKE UP THIS INFORMATION WHEN NECCESSARY
DEVELOP A THESIS STATEMENT A CLEARLY WORDED STATEMENT OF THE POSITION YOU WILL PROVE A MAIN IDEA STATEMENT A SINGLE, STRONGLY WORDED SENTENCE ALWAYS PRESENTED AS FACT, EVEN WHEN IT STATES AN OPINION THE CONTROLLING IDEA
ORGANIZE INTRODUCTION WITH THESIS STATEMENT CONCLUSION - SAVE YOUR BEST ARGUMENT FOR A STRONG FINISH (3 OR 4 PARAGRAPHS IS ENOUGH) *You are limited to 2 pages for the GHSWT
Types of Organizational Patterns Chronological Order of Events Comparison/Contrast Spatial Order Order of Importance of Ideas Problem/Solution Cause/Effect Order Classification Order Definition/Description
MORE ORGANIZATION OPTIONS 1.INTRODUCTION 2.SUPPORT 3.CONCLUSION 1.ARGUMENT 2.COUNTER- ARGUMENT 3.CONCLUSION 1.INTRODUCTION 2.ONE SIDE OF THE ISSUE 3.ANOTHER SIDE OF THE ISSUE 4.CONCLUSION
ORGANIZATION START WITH A BROAD STATEMENT IN YOUR INTRODUCTION THEN MOVE INTO SPECIFICS IN YOUR BODY PARAGRAPHS DON’T BE REPETITIVE YOUR CONCLUSION SHOULD COME TO A NATURAL CLOSE
PROVIDING ELABORATION GIVE THE FACTS: INSERT NAMES, DATES, AND OTHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION IN SUPPORT OF YOUR TOPIC
PROVIDING ELABORATION PROVIDE STATISTICS: CITE NUMBERS THAT PROVE YOUR POSITION “HOW MANY” “WHAT PERCENTAGE”
PROVIDING ELABORATION MAKE A COMPARISON: HOW DOES YOUR TOPIC MATCH OTHER TOPICS YOUR READER MAY ALREADY KNOW
PROVIDING ELABORATION SHARE A PERSONAL EXPERIENCE – TRY INCLUDING A SHORT NARRATIVE STORY IN YOUR INTRODUCTION OR CONCLUSION INCLUDE DETAILS: SPECIFICS THAT CLARIFY THE GENERAL POINT YOU ARE MAKING
OTHER… USE STANDARD AMERICN ENGLISH NO POETRY, RAP, OR BULLETED ITEMS USE DESCRIPTIVE, FIGURATIVE, AND TECHNICAL LANGUAGE TIE YOUR PAPER TO THE PROMPT – BE SURE TO FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS FOR WRITING
REVISING LOOK FOR WAYS TO MAKE IT BETTER CHECK THAT YOUR AGRUEMENT IS CLEAR CHECK THAT YOUR ESSAY IS WELL- ORGANIZED REVIEW THE DETAILS LIKE WORD CHOICE AND VARIED SENTENCE TYPES
REVISING STRENGTHEN YOUR INTRODUCTION GRAB THE READER’S INTEREST IN YOUR TOPIC FROM THE BEGINNING THIS IS YOUR LEAD – YOUR ONCE-IN-AN- ESSAY OPPORTUNITY TO BUILD INTEREST YOU CAN ADD AN OPEN ENDED QUESTION TO THE FIRST PARAGRAPH, BUT TRY NOT TO MAKE IT THE FIRST SENTENCE… THIS IS FORMULAIC
REVISING YOUR PARAGRAPHS ELIMINATE ERRORS IN FAULTY LOGIC WITH UNREASONABLE APPEALS DON’T SIMPLY RESTATE YOUR IDEAS OVER AND OVER DON’T OVERSIMPLIFY THE ISSUE BY OFFERING ONLY TWO EXTREMES – THERE ARE OFTEN OTHER POSSIBILITIES
REVISING YOUR SENTENCES USE TRANSITIONS TO IMPROVE CLARITY TO SHOW A CONTRAST POINT: HOWEVER, ALTHOUGH, DESPITE TO POINT TO A REASON: SINCE, BECAUSE, IF TO SIGNAL A CONCLUSION: THEREFORE, CONSEQUENTLY, SO, THEN AVOID STARTING PARAGRAPHS WITH TRANSITIONS INSTEAD USE THEM WITHIN A PARAGRAPH OR WITHIN A SENTENCE
REVISING WORD CHOICE CHECK THE DENOTATION OF WORDS DENOTATION IS A WORD’S DIRECT, EXPLICIT MEANING OR DICTIONARY DEFINITION MEASURE A WORD’S CONOTATION CONOTATION IS THE INFORMAL MEANING A READER ATTACHES TO A WORD EXAMPLES: CLEVER VS. SLY INQUISITIVE VS. NOSY AROMA VS. STENCH
REVISION IF YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT A WORD MEANS, DON’T USE IT IN YOUR WRITING BIG WORDS ARE NOT ALWAYS BETTER YOUR WRITING SHOULD SHOW SOME OF YOUR PERSONALITY
REVISION STRATEGY IF POSSIBLE, TRY USING A THESAURUS TO FIND SYNONYMS USE STRONG WORDS THAT MAY HELP SWAY YOUR READER WHEN YOU CAN, UTILIZE PEER REVIEW AND SHARE YOUR DRAFT WITH A PARTNER
Sweet Sixteen Revision Ideas 1.Unity: You have one clear thesis that responds to the assigned task, and all the ideas in your essay help to support that thesis. 2. Insight: Your ideas are thoughtful and stimulating, yet reasonable and true to the material. 3.Argument: You prove your ideas clearly, logically, and completely. You fully prepare the reader to understand each sentence and its purpose in your paper. 4.Evidence: The quality and quantity of evidence strongly supports your ideas and shows thorough knowledge of the material.
Sweet Sixteen Revision, continued Organization 5.Introduction: Your first paragraph engages the reader and introduces a clear thesis or purpose. 6.Paragraphing: Each body paragraph sticks to one idea, and each idea is discussed in only one body paragraph. 7.Flow: Your main ideas are presented in a logical and effective order, made clear via topic sentences, paragraph conclusions, and transitions. 8.Conclusion: You conclude with a graceful reminder of your thesis.
Sweet Sixteen Revision, continued Style 9.Conciseness: You express ideas simply and clearly without wasted words or unnecessary repetition. 10. Vocabulary: Your choice of words is interesting and precise but not pretentious. 11. Sentence Structure: Your sentences are strong, graceful, and suitably varied in length and structure. 12. Vividness: You enliven your writing with concrete language, fresh and specific detail, and metaphor without cliché.
Sweet Sixteen Revision, continued Grammar 13. Sentence Sense: Your writing is free of run-on sentences and fragments. 14. Grammar and Usage: You follow the rules of Standard English. 15. Mechanics: Your spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are accurate. 16. Format: You follow the conventions of documentation Jago, Carol. (2005). Papers, papers, papers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
EDITING & PROOFREADING DOUBLE-CHECK SPELLING, PUNCTUATION, & GRAMMAR TO ELIMINATE ERRORS FOCUS ON COMMAS COMMAS SHOULD SHOW YOUR READER WHEN TO PAUSE USE COMMAS TO SEPARATE ITEMS IN A SERIES USE COMMAS TO SET OFF INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL
PUBLISHING YOUR FINAL DRAFT SHOULD BE NEAT & POLISHED IF YOUR GHSWT ESSAY IS ILLEGIBLE, IT WILL NOT BE SCORED!
Formulaic Writing: Abundance in Redundancy Characteristics of A Formulaic Paper 1.The writer announces his or her thesis and three supporting ideas in the opening paragraph. 2.The writer restates one supporting idea to begin each of the three body paragraphs. 3.The writer repeats or restates his/her controlling idea and supporting points in the final paragraph. 4.Entire sentences may be repeated verbatim from the introduction, used as topic sentences in each of the body paragraphs, and repeated in the conclusion.
Formulaic Writing: Abundance in Redundancy Avoid starting each paragraph with a transition: first, second, third, or in conclusion Avoid starting the first paragraph with a question; instead, move that question to the middle of your introductory paragraph Avoid repeating any words or phrases DON’T DON’T REPEAT REPEAT YOURSELF YOURSELF!!!!!
Ways to Avoid Formulaic Writing… Organizes strategy appropriate to topic and genre and one which guides the reader through the text Sequences ideas and groups appropriately and logically Sets stage in the introduction (writer’s controlling idea) Creates a sense of closure without repetition Uses good transitioning