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Biometrics and Data Encryption Standard (DES)

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6.1.1 History DES was adopted as a US federal standard for commercial encryption in Feistel Cipher: the fundamental building block of DES designed by IBM. Design requirements: must provide high level of security (commercial standard) Security must not depend on secrecy of algorithm (Kerckhoff’s principle) Must be easily and economically implemented

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DES is a block cipher, as shown in Figure Overview Figure 6.1 Encryption and decryption with DES

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DES Structure The encryption process is made of two permutations (P- boxes), which we call initial and final permutations, and sixteen Feistel rounds.

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6.2.1 Initial and Final Permutations Figure 6.3 Initial and final permutation steps in DES

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6.2.1 Continue Table 6.1 Initial and final permutation tables How to read this table? The 58 th bit of input x will be the first bit of output IP(x), the 50 th bit of x is the second bit of IP(x), etc. The initial and final permutations are straight P-boxes that are inverses of each other. They have no cryptography significance in DES.

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Example Continued Find the output of the initial permutation box when the input is given in hexadecimal as: Only bit 25 and bit 64 are 1s; the other bits are 0s. In the final permutation, bit 25 becomes bit 64 and bit 63 becomes bit 15. The result is Solution

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DES uses 16 rounds. Each round of DES is a Feistel cipher. –Separate message block into two 32-bit halves, L i and R i –Introduce confusion by using a “complex” nonlinear function f –f has two inputs: R i and a 48-bit round key, K i –Introduce diffusion by “adding” L i and the output of f Rounds Figure 6.4 A round in DES (encryption site) L i+1 = R i R i+1 = L i f(R i, K i+1 )

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The heart of DES is the DES function. The DES function applies a 48-bit key to the rightmost 32 bits to produce a 32-bit output Continued DES Function Figure 6.5 DES function

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Expansion P-box Since R I−1 is a 32-bit input and K I is a 48-bit key, we first need to expand R I−1 to 48 bits Continue Figure 6.6 Expansion permutation

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Although the relationship between the input and output can be defined mathematically, DES uses Table 6.2 to define this P-box Continue Table 6.6 Expansion P-box table

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Whitener (XOR) After the expansion permutation, DES uses the XOR operation on the expanded right section and the round key. Note that both the right section and the key are 48- bits in length. Also note that the round key is used only in this operation Continue

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S-Boxes The S-boxes do the real mixing (confusion). DES uses 8 S-boxes, each with a 6-bit input and a 4-bit output. See Figure Continue Figure 6.7 S-boxes

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6.2.2 Continue Figure 6.8 S-box rule

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Table 6.3 shows the permutation for S-box 1. For the rest of the boxes see the textbook Continue Table 6.3 S-box 1

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Example Continued The input to S-box 1 is What is the output? If we write the first and the sixth bits together, we get 11 in binary, which is 3 in decimal. The remaining bits are 0001 in binary, which is 1 in decimal. We look for the value in row 3, column 1, in Table 6.3 (S-box 1). The result is 12 in decimal, which in binary is So the input yields the output Solution

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Straight Permutation Continue Table 6.11 Straight permutation table

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6.2.3 Key Generation Figure 6.10 Key generation The round-key generator creates sixteen 48-bit keys out of a 56-bit cipher key.

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6.2.3 Continued Table 6.12 Parity-bit drop table Table 6.13 Number of bits shifts 64 56

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6.2.3 Continued Table 6.14 Key-compression table 56 48

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Two desired properties of a block cipher are the avalanche effect and the completeness Properties Example 6.7 To check the avalanche effect in DES, let us encrypt two plaintext blocks (with the same key) that differ only in one bit and observe the differences in the number of bits in each round.

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Example Continued Although the two plaintext blocks differ only in the rightmost bit, the ciphertext blocks differ in 29 bits. This means that changing approximately 1.5 percent of the plaintext creates a change of approximately 45 percent in the ciphertext. Table 6.17 Number of bit differences for Example 6.7 Continued

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6.3.1 Continued Completeness effect Completeness effect means that each bit of the ciphertext needs to depend on many bits on the plaintext.

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6.3.2 Design Criteria S-Boxes The design provides confusion and diffusion of bits from each round to the next. P-Boxes They provide diffusion of bits. Number of Rounds DES uses sixteen rounds of Feistel ciphers. the ciphertext is thoroughly a random function of plaintext and ciphertext.

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During the last few years critics have found some weaknesses in DES DES Weaknesses Weaknesses in Cipher Design 1.Weaknesses in S-boxes Two specifically chosen inputs to an S-box can create same output 2. Weaknesses in P-boxes initial and final permutations have no security benefits the first and fourth bits of every 4-bit series are repeated 3. Weaknesses in Key Weak keys create same 16 round keys Semi-weak keys create 2 different round keys Possible weak keys create 4 distinct round keys Key complement

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There are four weak keys. After parity drop operation, a key consists either of all 0s, all 1s, or half 0s and half 1s. Weak keys create same 16 round keys DES Weaknesses

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Example Continued Let us try the first weak key in Table 6.18 to encrypt a block two times. After two encryptions with the same key the original plaintext block is created. Note that we have used the encryption algorithm two times, not one encryption followed by another decryption.

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6.3.3 Continued Figure 6.11 Double encryption and decryption with a weak key

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6.3.3 Continued Semi-weak keys create only 2 different round keys; k1, k2

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6.3.3 Continued Semi-week keys create 2 different round keys

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6.3.3 Continued Figure 6.12 A pair of semi-weak keys in encryption and decryption

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Example Continued What is the probability of randomly selecting a weak, a semi- weak, or a possible weak key? Solution DES has a key domain of The total number of the above keys are 64 ( ). The probability of choosing one of these keys is 8.8 × 10 −16, almost impossible.

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6.3.3 Continued

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Example Continued Let us test the claim about the complement keys. We have used an arbitrary key and plaintext to find the corresponding ciphertext. If we have the key complement and the plaintext, we can obtain the complement of the previous ciphertext (Table 6.20).

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6-4 Multiple DES Major limitation of DES Key length is too short (56 bits). Question: So can we apply DES multiple times to increase the strength of encryption? Advantage: We could then preserve the existing investment in software and equipment Double DES Triple DES Topics discussed in this section:

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Double DES (I) Apply two iterations of DES with two keys K1 and K2 What if DES has a structure of an algebraic group, such that for each K1 and K2 there is a K3 with the property: E k2 (E k1 (P)) = E k3 (P) Meet-in-the-Middle Attack However, using a known-plaintext attack called meet-in-the-middle attack proves (1992) that double DES improves this vulnerability slightly (to 2 57 tests), but not tremendously (to ).

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6.4.1 Continued Figure 6.14 Meet-in-the-middle attack for double DES For given P and C – search only O(2^56) pairs of keys K1 and K2 at the intermediate message M Encrypt P under all 2^56 options for K1 – Denote the results by M1, M2,..., Mn Decrypt C under all 2^56 options for K2 – Denote the results by M1’, M2’,..., Mn’

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6.4.1 Continued Figure 6.15 Tables for meet-in-the-middle attack Sort the values M1, M2,..., Mn Sort the values M1’, M2’,..., Mn’ Eve will find at least one match of M with two keys (k1 and k2). If there is only match, Eve found the key. If there is more than one, Eve takes another intercepted plain-text-cipher text pair. This is repeated until she finally finds a unique pair.

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Triple-DES (I) EEE Mode: – DES Encrypt-Encrypt-Encrypt with three keys K 1, K 2, K 3 (168 bits) and strength O (2 110 ) against Meet-in-the-Middle – Not compatible with regular DES

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Triple-DES (II) EDE Mode: DES Encrypt-Decrypt-Encrypt with two keys K 1, & K 2 Properties: Two keys (112 bits) Strength O(2 110 ) against Meet-in-the-Middle Compatible with regular DES when K 1 = K 2

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E-D-E versus E-E-E Why E-D-E? Initial and final permutations would cancel each other out with EEE (minor advantage to EDE) EDE compatible with single DES if same keys. Only 2 different Keys needed with E-D-E The possibility of known-plaintext attacks on triple DES with two keys has enticed some applications to use triple DES with three keys. Triple DES with three keys is used by many applications such as PGP. New candidates numerous - RC5, IDEA, two-fish, CAST, etc.

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The size of the key space, 256, is “too small” to be really secure. Brute-Force Attack: Combining short cipher key in DES with the key complement weakness, it is clear that DES can be broken using 2^55 encryptions. Security of DES mainly relies on the nonlinearity of the f (i.e. the S-boxes) 6-5 Security of DES DES, as the first important block cipher, has gone through much scrutiny.

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6-5 Security of DES Differential cryptanalysis: Designed S-boxes and 16 rounds aim to make DES specifically resistant to this type of attack. Linear cryptanalysis: DES is more vulnerable to linear cryptanalysis than to differential cryptanalysis. S- boxes are not very resistant to linear cryptanalysis. It has been shown that DES can be broken using 243 pairs of known plaintexts. However, from the practical point of view, finding so many pairs is very unlikely.

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Exhaustive Key Search In 1993, Michael Wiener presented a pipelined chip which does 16 encryptions simultaneously and tests 5 10 7 DES keys per second. Each chip could be built for US$10 using current technology. A frame consisting of 5760 chips can be built for $100K. In 1997, cost cut by a factor of 6 Software version of DES cracking effort can be found at Current Record: 22 hrs and 15 mins to break DES by distributed software cracking effort.

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Overview of DES C = DES (K, M) Block size = 64 bits Key size = 56 bits Number of rounds = 16 IP-Initial Permutation IP -1 -The inverse of IP f-A nonlinear function K i -Round i subkey (48 bits) Each Feistel block can be described as L i = R i-1 R i = L i-1 f (R i-1, K i )

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Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

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7-1 INTRODUCTION The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric-key block cipher published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in December 2001.

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Criteria The criteria defined by NIST for selecting AES fall into three areas: 1. Security 2. Cost 3. Implementation.

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Rounds. AES is a non-Feistel cipher that encrypts and decrypts a data block of 128 bits. It uses 10, 12, or 14 rounds. The key size, which can be 128, 192, or 256 bits, depends on the number of rounds. AES has defined three versions, with 10, 12, and 14 rounds. Each version uses a different cipher key size (128, 192, or 256), but the round keys are always 128 bits. Note

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Figure 7.1 General design of AES encryption cipher Rounds.

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Data Units. Figure 7.2 Data units used in AES

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Continue Figure 7.3 Block-to-state and state-to-block transformation

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Continue Example 7.1 Figure 7.4 Changing plaintext to state Continue

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Structure of Each Round Figure 7.5 Structure of each round at the encryption site

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7-2 TRANSFORMATIONS To provide security, AES uses four types of transformations: substitution, permutation, mixing, and key-adding Substitution 7.2.2Permutation 7.2.3Mixing 7.2.4Key Adding Topics discussed in this section:

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7.2.1 Substitution AES, like DES, uses substitution. AES uses two invertible transformations. SubBytes The first transformation, SubBytes, is used at the encryption site. To substitute a byte, we interpret the byte as two hexadecimal digits. The SubBytes operation involves 16 independent byte-to-byte transformations. Note

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Figure 7.6 SubBytes transformation Substitution

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7.2.2 Permutation Another transformation found in a round is shifting, which permutes the bytes. ShiftRows In the encryption, the transformation is called ShiftRows. Figure 7.9 ShiftRows transformation

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Example 7.4 Figure 7.10 shows how a state is transformed using ShiftRows transformation. The figure also shows that InvShiftRows transformation creates the original state. Figure 7.10 ShiftRows transformation in Example Permutation

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7.2.3 Mixing We need an interbyte transformation that changes the bits inside a byte, based on the bits inside the neighboring bytes. We need to mix bytes to provide diffusion at the bit level. Figure 7.11 Mixing bytes using matrix multiplication

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MixColumns The MixColumns transformation operates at the column level; it transforms each column of the state to a new column. Figure 7.13 MixColumns transformation Mixing

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7.2.4 Key Adding AddRoundKey AddRoundKey proceeds one column at a time. AddRoundKey adds a round key word with each state column matrix; the operation in AddRoundKey is matrix addition. The AddRoundKey transformation is the inverse of itself. Note

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Figure 7.15 AddRoundKey transformation Key Adding

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Cipher and reverse cipher of AES

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AES Security AES was designed after DES. Most of the known attacks on DES were already tested on AES. Brute-Force Attack AES is definitely more secure than DES due to the larger-size key. Statistical Attacks Numerous tests have failed to do statistical analysis of the ciphertext. Differential and Linear Attacks There are no differential and linear attacks on AES as yet.

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Simplicity and Cost The algorithms used in AES are so simple that they can be easily implemented using cheap processors and a minimum amount of memory.

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Cryptographic APIs 1. Cryptlib (http://www.cryptlib.com/)http://www.cryptlib.com/ 2. OpenSSL (http://www.openssl.org)http://www.openssl.org 3. Crypt++ (http://www.cryptopp.com/)http://www.cryptopp.com/ 4. BSAFE (http://www.rsa.com/node.aspx?id=1204)http://www.rsa.com/node.aspx?id= Cryptix (http://www.cryptix.org/)http://www.cryptix.org/ 6. Crypt:: CPAN modules (http://www.cpan.org/,

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Supported Ciphers 1. Range of MAC algorithms Almost all include MD5, SHA-1 2. Range of symmetric algorithms Almost all include AES, DES 3. Range of public key algorithms Almost all include RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA

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Cryptographic APIs Cryptlib easy to use free for noncommercial use OpenSSL poorly documented open source popular

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Cryptographic APIs Crypto++ C++ library open source BSAFE well documented, Java, C/C++ most popular commercial library Was commercial SDK from RSA free from 2009 under RSA Share Project https://community.emc.com/community/edn/rsashare?view =tags&tags=java https://community.emc.com/community/edn/rsashare?view =tags&tags=java

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Cryptographic APIs Cryptix: JCA, JCE open source Java library, C# library Python Cryptographic Toolkit open source crypt, hash, rand modules Crypt:: CPAN modules for Perl well documented many different libraries

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