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Detecting Conflict-Related Changes in the ACC Judy Savitskaya 1, Jack Grinband 1,3, Tor Wager 2, Vincent P. Ferrera 3, Joy Hirsch 1,3 1.Program for Imaging.

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Presentation on theme: "Detecting Conflict-Related Changes in the ACC Judy Savitskaya 1, Jack Grinband 1,3, Tor Wager 2, Vincent P. Ferrera 3, Joy Hirsch 1,3 1.Program for Imaging."— Presentation transcript:

1 Detecting Conflict-Related Changes in the ACC Judy Savitskaya 1, Jack Grinband 1,3, Tor Wager 2, Vincent P. Ferrera 3, Joy Hirsch 1,3 1.Program for Imaging and Cognitive Sciences (PICS), 2. Dept. of Psychology, 3. Dept. of Neurobiology & Behavior, Columbia University Discussion Differences in RT between conditions can obscure differences in neural activity due to condition type. The response in the mPFC does not depend on the presence of response conflict. Instead, it is determined by mean RT of each condition and the level of cognitive control. After eliminating differences in RT, mPFC activity was determined by the level of cognitive control. GLM analyses should be validated by model-free analyses. # RR89 Figure 3. A standard GLM analysis was performed. A contrast of incongruent trials > congruent trials produced robust activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This activity was used to create a mask to perform event-triggered averaging (Figs 4 & 5). Figure 5. A model free analysis. Hemodynamic responses were measured in the mPFC for congruent and incongruent trials of varying RTs. Fig. 5A shows the event-triggered average for all the trials; this result is consistent with the GLM result in Fig 3. Fig. 5B shows HDRs for trials with equal RTs (i.e. RTs within a 200ms window). Fig. 5C compares fast incongruent trials (> mean RT) with slow congruent trials (< mean RT). The activity in mPFC is completely determined by RT rather than the presence of response conflict. Effect of Response Time For further information contact: Jack Grinband, Imaging Scanning was performed on a 1.5T GE Twinspeed Scanner. Sixteen subjects were scanned for 5 runs (8 min each). TR = 2.0 s, 25 slices, 4.0 mm slice thickness, FOV = 200, 64 x 64. RT Performance Figure 2. Incongruent trials have longer mean RTs than congruent trials. Incongruent Congruent Incongruent Trials Congruent Trials RT Frequency Incongruent RTs > Congruent RTs (All Trials) Incongruent RTs = Congruent RTs (Trials within 100 ms of median) Incongruent RT < Congruent RT (Short incongruent & Long congruent trials) Low Control Trials (preceded by congruent) Incongruent RTs = Congruent RTs High Control Trials (preceded by incongruent) Incongruent RTs = Congruent RTs Effect of Cognitive Control Incongruent Congruent Incongruent > Congruent Introduction Functional imaging studies have suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an integral component of the decision-making system. Using the Stroop task, it has been shown that BOLD activity in the ACC is increased for high conflict (incongruent stimuli), compared to low conflict (congruent stimuli), decisions. This result has been interpreted to mean that the ACC is involved in conflict detection and/or resolution and that the ACC may represent a conflict-related module in the brain. Recent work (Grinband et al, 2008) has shown that stimulus processing duration can modulate the BOLD response independent of condition-type. In some decision-making tasks, response time (RT) may be correlated to the condition type. This creates ambiguity in brain activation results: neural activity can be due to differences in condition or differences in RT. We used a model-free (non-GLM) analysis of fMRI data. determine whether ACC activity stems from the processing of cognitive conflict or is related to conflict-independent effects of response time. Figure 1. Subjects performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Four colors (red, green, blue, yellow) were used. To eliminate repetition priming effects, color combinations were randomized such that the same color was not presented on two consecutive trials. Incongruent Congruent Incongruent Congruent Stroop Task Red Trial 1 - Congruent Fixation Trial 2 - Congruent Blue Yellow Green Fixation Trial 3 - Incongruent Trial 4 - Incongruent Time ITI= s Z = 4.0 Z = 1.6 Long Trials > Short Trials Figure 4. To simulate the effects of RT on a standard GLM contrast, we compared long duration trials vs short duration trials on a data set in which there were no differences in condition type. A simple visual stimulus (flashing checkerboard) was presented to subjects for variable durations (mean = 840 ms, gamma distributed). There were no differences in condition type, only differences in stimulus duration. A contrast of long trials (> 840 ms) vs short trials (< 840 ms) produced a result in visual cortex similar to the activation map in mPFC for the incongruent vs congruent contrast. C B A Incongruent Congruent Z = 4.0 Z = 1.6 Figure 6. To determine the effect of cognitive control on activity in mPFC, congruent and incongruent trials with equal RTs were sorted by previous trial type. When the previous trial was congruent (low control), mPFC showed more activity on incongruent trials. When the previous trial was incongruent, the result was reversed. Grinband, Wager, Lindquist, Ferrera, Hirsch (2008) Detection of time-varying signals in event-related fMRI designs. Neuroimage 43, Time (s) % BOLD signal change (x )


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