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Part 3 Trait Theories 2 of 55 Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: (Later added.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 3 Trait Theories 2 of 55 Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: (Later added."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Part 3 Trait Theories

3 2 of 55 Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: (Later added the third). Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward Ambivert: A mixture of extraversion and introversion Jung’s Theory of Three Types

4 3 of 55 Carl Jung

5 4 of 55 Eysenck’s Three Factor Theory Hans Eysenck, English psychologist, believed that there are three fundamental factors in personality: Introversion versus Extroversion Emotionally Stable versus Unstable (neurotic) Impulse Control versus Psychotic

6 5 of 55 Hans Eysenck

7 6 of 55 Eysenck’s Theory, continued The first two factors create 4 combinations, related to the four basic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks: Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad, gloomy Choleric (extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered, irritable Phlegmatic (introverted + stable): sluggish, calm Sanguine (extroverted + stable): cheerful, hopeful

8 7 of 55 Raymond Cattell: from Devon, England, believed that there were two basic categories of traits: Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas of personality Source Traits: Underlying characteristics of a personality Cattell also constructed the 16PF, a personality test identifying 16 personality factors (source traits). Cattell: Source & Surface Traits

9 8 of 55 Raymond Cattell

10 9 of 55 The Sixteen Personality Factors

11 10 of 55 Cattell: The Big Five Cattell believed that five factors were most important: O penness C onscientiousness E xtraversion A greeable N euroticism

12 11 of 55 Graphic: The Big Five

13 12 of 55 McCrae and Costa NEO Personality Inventory- (Neuroticism-Extroversion- Openness) Measures the “ Big Five” Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness plus 6 facets: Anxiety, Depression, Altruism, Self-Discipline and deliberation On the basis of the data from sixteen cultures, asserted that the neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness dimensions are cross-culturally valid The NEO traits are not necessarily stable across life. Based on cross-sectional and longitudinal studies researchers conclude that neuroticism and extraversion declines with age, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness increase

14 13 of 55 Evaluation of Trait Theories Are traits as pervasive as trait theories claim? Is someone shy always or does it depend on the situation? Are traits as enduring and unchangeable as trait theories claim? Can we change our traits? If so, how easily? Are traits affected by social and cultural upbringing? Or are our personalities formed at birth and unchanging thereafter?

15 14 of 55 Rubric 0 I still do not understand all this personality stuff 1 I can Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers) 2 1 plus: I can compare and contrast the major theories and approaches to explaining personality: psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait, social learning, and behavioral. 3 All of 1 & 2 plus: Identify frequently used assessment strategies (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI], the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT]), and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of the instruments. 4 All of 1-3 plus Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case studies and surveys) that psychologists use to investigate personality. Speculate how cultural context can facilitate or constrain personality development, especially as it relates to self-concept

16 15 of 55 Jung/Briggs -Myers Go to the following address: win/jtypes2.asphttp://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi- win/jtypes2.asp Take the personality inventory and bring your results with you to class tomorrow

17 16 of 55 Interpreting the Briggs-Myer Extraversion: sociability, energized by people, lonely when alone (75%) Sensation: practical, trusts facts; learns through ex-perience; wants to deal with what’s real Thinking: prefers the objective, logical, analytical Judging: prefers closure, wants deadlines, feels more comfortable once a decision has been made. Intraversion: territorial, enjoys being alone, private, drained by people (25%) Intuition: innovative, fantasizes; future more attractive than the present Feeling: prefers the subjective, personal, values Perceiving: resists closure, wants more & more data; values the open-ended; pressure to decide stressful

18 Part 4 Social-Cognitive Theories

19 18 of 55 Self-system: the set of cognitive processes by which a person observes, evaluates, and regulates his/her behavior. Bandura proposed that what we think of as personality is a product of this self-system. Children observe behavior of models (such as parents) in their social environment. Particularly if they are reinforced, children will imitate these behaviors, incorporating them into personality. Bandura also proposed that people observe their own behavior and judge its effectiveness. Self-efficacy: a judgment of one’s effectiveness in dealing with particular situations. Bandura’s Theory

20 19 of 55 Julian Rotter: American psychologist, began as a Freudian! His personality theory combines learning principles, modeling, cognition, and the effects of social relationships External locus of control: perception that chance or external forces beyond personal control determine one’s fate Internal locus of control: perception that you control your own fate. Learned Helplessness: a sense of hopelessness in which a person thinks that he/she is unable to prevent aversive events Rotter’s Theory of Locus of Control

21 20 of 55 Julian Rotter

22 21 of 55 Evaluation of Social-Cognitive Theories Social-cognitive theories tend to be overly-mechanical. Overemphasizes environmental influences; gives little or no consideration to the possibility of innate personality differences or the effects of genetics. Does not recognize internal human qualities such as hope, aspiration, love, self-sacrifice


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