2Jung’s Theory of Three Types Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: (Later added the third).Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inwardExtrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outwardAmbivert: A mixture of extraversion and introversion
4Eysenck’s Three Factor Theory Hans Eysenck, English psychologist, believed that there are three fundamental factors in personality:Introversion versus ExtroversionEmotionally Stable versus Unstable (neurotic)Impulse Control versus Psychotic
6Eysenck’s Theory, continued The first two factors create 4 combinations, related to the four basic temperaments recognized by ancient Greeks:Melancholic (introverted + unstable): sad, gloomyCholeric (extroverted + unstable): hot-tempered, irritablePhlegmatic (introverted + stable): sluggish, calmSanguine (extroverted + stable): cheerful, hopeful
7Cattell: Source & Surface Traits Raymond Cattell: from Devon, England, believed that there were two basic categories of traits:Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas of personalitySource Traits: Underlying characteristics of a personalityCattell also constructed the 16PF, a personality test identifying 16 personality factors (source traits).
12McCrae and CostaNEO Personality Inventory- (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness)Measures the “ Big Five” Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness plus 6 facets: Anxiety, Depression, Altruism, Self-Discipline and deliberationOn the basis of the data from sixteen cultures, asserted that the neuroticism, openness, and conscientiousness dimensions are cross-culturally validThe NEO traits are not necessarily stable across life. Based on cross-sectional and longitudinal studies researchers conclude that neuroticism and extraversion declines with age, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness increase
13Evaluation of Trait Theories Are traits as pervasive as trait theories claim? Is someone shy always or does it depend on the situation?Are traits as enduring and unchangeable as trait theories claim? Can we change our traits? If so, how easily?Are traits affected by social and cultural upbringing? Or are our personalities formed at birth and unchanging thereafter?
14Rubric 0 I still do not understand all this personality stuff 1 I can Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers)2 1 plus: I can compare and contrast the major theories and approaches to explaining personality: psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait, social learning, and behavioral .3 All of 1 & 2 plus: Identify frequently used assessment strategies (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI], the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT]), and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of the instruments .4 All of 1-3 plus Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case studies and surveys) that psychologists use to investigate personality . Speculate how cultural context can facilitate or constrain personality development, especially as it relates to self-concept
15Jung/Briggs -MyersGo to the following address:Take the personality inventory and bring your results with you to class tomorrow
16Interpreting the Briggs-Myer Extraversion: sociability, energized by people, lonely when alone (75%)Sensation: practical, trusts facts; learns through ex-perience; wants to deal with what’s realThinking: prefers the objective, logical, analyticalJudging: prefers closure, wants deadlines, feels more comfortable once a decision has been made.Intraversion: territorial, enjoys being alone, private, drained by people (25%)Intuition: innovative, fantasizes; future more attractive than the presentFeeling: prefers the subjective, personal, valuesPerceiving: resists closure, wants more & more data; values the open-ended; pressure to decide stressful
18Bandura’s TheorySelf-system: the set of cognitive processes by which a person observes, evaluates, and regulates his/her behavior. Bandura proposed that what we think of as personality is a product of this self-system.Children observe behavior of models (such as parents) in their social environment. Particularly if they are reinforced, children will imitate these behaviors, incorporating them into personality.Bandura also proposed that people observe their own behavior and judge its effectiveness. Self-efficacy: a judgment of one’s effectiveness in dealing with particular situations.
19Rotter’s Theory of Locus of Control Julian Rotter: American psychologist, began as a Freudian! His personality theory combines learning principles, modeling, cognition, and the effects of social relationshipsExternal locus of control: perception that chance or external forces beyond personal control determine one’s fateInternal locus of control: perception that you control your own fate.Learned Helplessness: a sense of hopelessness in which a person thinks that he/she is unable to prevent aversive events
21Evaluation of Social-Cognitive Theories Social-cognitive theories tend to be overly-mechanical.Overemphasizes environmental influences; gives little or no consideration to the possibility of innate personality differences or the effects of genetics.Does not recognize internal human qualities such as hope, aspiration, love, self-sacrifice