2 Cultural Revolution and the study of non-democratic regimes Lack of institutional checks on political authority readily allows extreme policiesLack of institutionalized mechanisms to address policy debates, leadership transitions, and mass participation in politics can lead to violence, instabilityRisks of violating separation of civilian and military leadershipUndermines military professionalismIncreases threat of military coupDemonstration of interplay between domestic politics and foreign policy
3 How did Cultural Revolution (1966-76) Proceed? Early 1960s: PreludeMao increasingly concerned about “revisionism”Mao supports series of campaigns to reassert Maoist values and priorities1966: CCP Central Committee “16-point Decision”launches mass struggle “to topple those in power who are taking the capitalist road”: Mass Phaseunleashing of students and masses against CCP“Conservative” and “Radical” Red GuardsEnded by sending million youth to rural areas: Civil-Military Conflictstruggle between PLA and CCPSoviet threat: “Brezhnev Doctrine”: Party ConflictUS-China rapproachment: Shanghai Communique 1972struggle for dominance within CCP
4 Prelude to the Cultural Revolution factors shaping Mao’s thinking“revisionism” in Soviet Unionconflict over correct socialist path“revisionism” in China“capitalist tendencies”question of succession to Maodissatisfaction with Liu Shaoqi Mao is worried about his legacy
5 Prelude to the Cultural Revolution Series of campaigns to reassert Maoist values and prioritiesSocialist Education Movement,revive commune system in agricultureLearn from the PLA under Minister of Defense Lin Biao, 1963“red” (Cult of Mao—”Little Red Book”) and expert (nukes)Other campaigns in health, education, and cultureHealth: ex—doctors to the countrysideEducation: ex—integrating manual labor into curriculumCulture: Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan Mao perceived that these campaigns failed because of obstructionism by Communist party apparatus
7 Primary Source Discussion: Sixteen-Point Decision August 1966 What is the goal of the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”?Who is intended to carry out this revolution?Who is expected to resist?Is there evidence of a power struggle? Policy struggle?What is significant about the approach to policy or personnel change in terms of organizational politics?
8 Primary Source Discussion: Sixteen-Point Decision August 1966 What is the goal of the “Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution”?“to topple those in power taking the capitalist road”To attack “4 olds” (customs, habits, culture, thinking)Who is intended to carry out this revolution?“the broad sectors of workers, peasants, soldiers…”Who is expected to resist?those in the Party “taking the capitalist road”Is there evidence of a power struggle? Policy struggle?What is significant about the approach to policy or personnel change in terms of organizational politics?
9 What was the Cultural Revolution all about? At the elite levelpower struggle over succession to Maoi.e., who would shape the future?struggle over correct vision/policiesi.e., what would the future look like?
10 Cultural Revolution Poster "Revolutionary factions of the proletariat, unite and arise. Struggle against the power of the black Tianjin Communist Party Committee." Proclaimed by the United Revolutionary Rebel Committee of Artists and Writers, 1967
11 Battle Lines Drawn: Overview of the Political Spectrum as of 1969 Mao Radicals inCult Rev GroupPLASurviving ModeratesOusted ModeratesMao’s secretaryChen BodaLin Biao∕Zhou EnlaiLiu Shaoqi* (d. 1969)Jiang QingDeng Xiaoping*Kang ShengTrained by NKVDChen YunZhang ChunqiaoShanghai cult apparatOthersYao WenyuanShanghai lit crit*1967 house arrest
12 What was the Cultural Revolution all about? Mass Phase At the mass level“Conservative (Scarlet)”and “Radical” Red Guardsopportunity for people to challengesocial and economic cleavagescreated by the socialist system in China
13 What was the Cultural Revolution all about? Mass Phase Why so violent?Politics as only channel for social mobilityOnly opportunity to express discontentMao’s charismaTranscendent mission of revolutionEnds used to justify means13
14 Review: How did Cultural Revolution (1966-76) Proceed? : Mass Phaseunleashing of students and masses against CCP“Conservative” and “Radical” Red GuardsCollapse of party organization in some placesPhase ended by sending youth to rural areasMao: Red Guards had “failed him.”12-18 million sent to countryside by 197114
16 Exercise of Power: 3-in-1 revolutionary committees Address collapse of party authorityRestore order, restore production, govern1: PLA (army)2: CCP (“uncorrupted” party cadres)3: Representatives of “the masses”
17 Exercise of Power: 3-in-1 revolutionary committees PLA itself being drawn into conflictLocal commanders closer to CCPRisk of splitting military—civil war?17
18 Review: How did Cultural Revolution (1966-76) Proceed? : Civil-Military ConflictStruggle between PLA and CCPCCPSeeks to rebuild itselfSeeks to reassert primary of party over armySoviet threat: “Brezhnev Doctrine”PLA, Lin BiaoDual threats from US, USSRAggrandizes PLATalks with Kissinger (1971)PRC UN seat (1971)18
19 Review: How did Cultural Revolution (1966-76) Proceed? : Party Conflict PhaseUS-China rapproachmentShanghai Communique (1972)Struggle for dominance within CCP19
20 Conflict over Policy: Radical Maoist Vision for China “Socialist new born things”education healthindustry cultureagriculture party affairsLearn from Daqing (industry)Learn from Dazhai (agriculture)May 7th Cadre Schools (party affairs)
21 Conflict over Policy: Moderate Vision for China “Four Modernizations” (January 1975)AgricultureIndustryDefenseScience and technologyRestore material incentivesIntroduce foreign technologyEmphasize expertiseIncrease managerial authority21
22 Overview of the Political Spectrum as of 1969 ( Overview of the Political Spectrum as of 1969 (* = in Gang of Four, arrested 1976) Mao (d. 1976)Radicals inCult Rev GroupPLASurviving ModeratesOusted ModeratesChen BodaLin Biao (d.1971)Zhou Enlai (d. 1976)Liu Shaoqi (d. 1969)Jiang Qing*Deng Xiaoping(V.Ch MAC’75)Mao brought back to reorganize PLAKang ShengChen YunZhang Chunqiao*OthersYao Wenyuan*Mao LoyalistsWang HongwenFactory sec guard(Politburo 1973)*Hua Guofeng (“Whatever Faction”)
23 Themes in analysis of Cultural Revolution Challenge norm of civilian control over military “party controls the gun”9th CCP Central Committee (1969) 45% military8th CCP Central Committee (1956) 29% military1975 Mao brought Deng Xiaoping back to reorganize PLAPLA Chief of StaffMilitary Affairs Commission, V.ChairmanPolitburo Standing Committee, V. ChairmanInterplay of domestic and foreign policySino-US-Soviet relationsDoctrinal disputesSoviet threat (Brezhnev Doctrine, border clashes) bigger PLA or turn to USA
24 Results of Cultural Revolution: Impact on Chinese Communist Party Organization of CCP underminedAbsence of institutionalized succession processes dramatizedLiu ShaoqiLin Biao (Mao’s “close comrade-in-arms” and successor)Gang of FourDeng XiaopingLegitimacy of CCP undermined
25 Results of Cultural Revolution: Impact on Chinese Society YouthLost educational opportunitiesPersonal tragediesBy 1971, million “sent-down” youthWorkers (urban residents)Wages stagnantProduction very inefficientFarmers (rural residents)Incomes stagnantOutput per capita flatSociety as wholeLoss of cultural patrimonyEstimated 10 million deaths
26 Any good results from Cultural Revolution? Broad-based provision of basic needsUnintended consequences—party/society more open to liberalizing reforms?Egalitarian starting point for reformOpportunities for women?—debate
27 Looking Back at the Cultural Revolution "The dream that we had at that time is not finished. I don't regret that time. We made a sacrifice for our ideals."— Shanghai Businessman"The Cultural Revolution was a barbaric and ignorant phenomenon. You couldn't have your own thoughts. If you didn't participate you would be criticized.... It was a Red Terror."— Retired Government WorkerSource:
28 Cultural Revolution and the study of non-democratic regimes Lack of institutional checks on political authority readily allows extreme policiesLack of institutionalized mechanisms to address policy debates, leadership transitions, and mass participation in politics can lead to violence, instabilityRisks of violating separation of civilian and military leadershipUndermines military professionalismIncreases threat of military coup, civil warDemonstration of interplay between domestic politics and foreign policy
29 Totalitarianism defined Single charismatic leaderSingle dominant partyUtopian, forward-looking ideologyState control over all organized activityMobilized participationPopular fear instilled by arbitrary terror
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