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Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer 1 st Edition Slide 1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter sixteen Sociology in Modules Government.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer 1 st Edition Slide 1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter sixteen Sociology in Modules Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Richard T. Schaefer 1 st Edition Slide 1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. chapter sixteen Sociology in Modules Government and the Economy

2 Slide 2 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Module 47: Government, Power, and Authority Module 48: Political Behavior and Power in the United StatesModule 48: Political Behavior and Power in the United States Module 49: Economic Systems Module 50: Changing Economies Government and Economy 16

3 Slide 3 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. █ How does the power elite maintain its power? A Look Ahead █ Is war necessary in settling international disputes? █ How have the trends toward deindustrialization and the outsourcing of service jobs affected our economy?

4 Slide 4 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Power and Authority █ Political system: social institution responsible for implementing and achieving society’s goals –Interacts closely with economic system: social institution thorough which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed –Politics: “who gets what, when, and how” (Lasswell) Module 47

5 Slide 5 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Power █ Sources of power in political systems –Force: actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s political dissidents –Influence: exercise of power through process of persuasion –Authority: institutionalized power recognized by the people over whom it is exercised █ Power: ability to exercise one’s will over others (Weber) Module 47

6 Slide 6 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Authority █ Three ideal types of authority (Weber) –Traditional authority: legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice –Rational-legal authority: power made legitimate by law –Charismatic authority: power made legitimate by leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers Charismatic leaders often become well known by breaking with established institutions Module 47

7 Slide 7 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 47-1: Filtering Information: Political Content Module 47

8 Slide 8 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Government █ Monarchy: Form of government headed by a single member of a royal family █ Oligarchy: Form of government in which a few individuals rule Module 47

9 Slide 9 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Government █ Dictatorship and Totalitarianism –Dictatorship: Government in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws –Totalitarianism: Involves virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society’s social and political life Module 47

10 Slide 10 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Government █ Democracy –Government by the people –Representative democracy: Elected members of legislatures make laws U.S. is representative democracy, but critics question how representative it really is Module 47

11 Slide 11 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. War and Peace █ War: Conflict between organizations that possess trained combat forces equipped with deadly weapons Legal definition typically requires formal declaration of hostilities Module 47

12 Slide 12 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. War █ Global view studies how and why nations become engaged in military conflict █ Nation-state view stresses interaction of internal political, socioeconomic, and cultural forces █ Microview focuses on social impact of war on individuals and their groups Module 47

13 Slide 13 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Peace █ Peace: Absence of war and proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations –Global Peace Index: U.S. ranked 97 on list of 121 nations –Since 1990s, 90% of armed conflicts occurred within states Nations cannot maintain security through threatening violence Module 47

14 Slide 14 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 47-2: U.S. Public Opinion on the Necessity of War, Module 47

15 Slide 15 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 47-3: Global Peace Index Module 47

16 Slide 16 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Terrorism █ Terrorism: Use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims –The end justifies the means –Essential aspect of contemporary terrorism involves use of media –Terrorism and terrorist movements symbolic enactments of masculinity Module 47

17 Slide 17 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Terrorism █ Since September 11, 2001, governments around the world renewed efforts to fight terrorism –Worldwide, immigration and processing of refugees slowed Module 47

18 Slide 18 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Political Behavior in the United States █ Participation and Apathy –In U.S., only small minority of citizens, often from higher social classes, participate in political organizations on local or national level –By 2008 election voter turnout was only 62% of eligible voters Political participation makes government accountable to voters Module 48

19 Slide 19 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Research Today █ Why Don’t More Young People Vote? –If you do not vote, what accounts for your apathy? –Do you think voter apathy is a serious social problem? What might be done to increase voter participation in your age group and community? Module 48

20 Slide 20 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Race and Gender in Politics █ In U.S., political strength is lacking in marginalized groups, such as women and racial and ethnic minorities –Progress toward inclusion of minority groups in government has been slow –Female politicians enjoying more electoral success but evidence that media cover them differently Module 48

21 Slide 21 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 48-1: Voter Turnout Worldwide Module 48

22 Slide 22 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 48-2: Women in National Legislatures, Selected Countries, 2008 Module 48

23 Slide 23 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Power Elite Models █ Elite model: society ruled by small group of individuals who share common set of political and economic interests █ Mills’ Model –Power elite: Small ruling elite of military, industrial, and governmental leaders –Power rests in the hands of few –Global power elite being researched Module 48

24 Slide 24 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Power Elite Models █ Domhoff’s Model –Stresses roles played by elites of corporate community and leaders of policy-formation organizations –In electoral arena, two coalitions: Corporate-conservative Liberal-labor Module 48

25 Slide 25 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Power Elite Models █ Pluralist model: Competing groups within the community have access to government, so no single group can dominate –Variety of groups play significant roles in decisions Fails to address potential power of elites to keep matters out of government debate Module 48

26 Slide 26 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 48-3: Power Elite Models Module 48

27 Slide 27 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Economic Systems █ Industrial society: Society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services –Capitalism –Socialism Module 49

28 Slide 28 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Capitalism █ Capitalism: Economic system in which means of production are held largely in private hands –Main incentive for economic activity is accumulation of profits –Laissez-faire: Businesses compete with minimal government intervention –Monopoly: Exists when a single firm controls the market Module 49

29 Slide 29 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Socialism █ Socialism: Means of production and distribution owned collectively rather than privately owned –Communism: Economic system under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce Module 49

30 Slide 30 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Informal Economy █ Informal economy: Transfer of money, goods, or services is not reported to the government –Difficult to measure In developing nations, informal economy represents 40% to 60% of total economic activity Module 49

31 Slide 31 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sociology in the Global Community █ Working Women in Nepal –In your own family, is “women’s work” taken for granted? Have you ever tried to figure out what it would cost your family to pay for all the unpaid work women do? –Why is recognizing women’s work important? How might life change if the true economic value of women’s work were recognized? Module 49

32 Slide 32 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 49-1: Characteristics of the Three Major Economic Systems Module 49

33 Slide 33 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Case Study: Capitalism in China █ China stands on the brink of becoming world’s largest economy –Chinese more interested in acquiring latest consumer goods –Communist Party officials’ decision to open China’s economy to capitalism reduced once omnipotent institution’s influence Module 49

34 Slide 34 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Road to Capitalism █ The Communist party assumed control of China in 1949, outlawing profit-making –By 1960s, China’s economy dominated by state-controlled enterprises –In 1980s government eased restrictions on private enterprise –By mid-1990s party officials began to give businesses to private entrepreneurs Module 49

35 Slide 35 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Chinese Economy Today █ Growing free-market economy brought significant inequality to Chinese workers █ Chinese capitalists now have to compete with multinational corporations By 2009, the Chinese were buying more automobiles than people in the U.S. Module 49

36 Slide 36 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chinese Workers in the New Economy █ Loosening state control led to rise in job mobility, increased opportunity, and prosperity for family-owned businesses –Struggles include a lag between urban and rural salaries and worker safety –Many middle-aged urban workers lost jobs to rural migrants seeking higher wages –With growth of a middle class, many Chinese seek same opportunities as Western workers Module 49

37 Slide 37 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 49-1: World’s Largest Economies, 2008 Module 49

38 Slide 38 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Microfinancing █ Microfinancing: lending small sums of money to poor so they can work their way out of poverty –Developed by Muhammad Yunus in Bangladesh Works well in countries with severe economic devastation –Estimated microfinancing reaching over 75 million people in 100 countries in 2009 Estimated that 90% of recipients are women Module 50

39 Slide 39 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Changing Face of the Workforce █ U.S. workforce is constantly changing –Sociologists and labor specialists foresee workforce increasingly composed of women and racial and ethnic minorities 54% of new workers expected to be women from 1984 to 2014 –More diverse workforce means relationships between workers more likely to cross gender, racial, and ethnic lines Module 50

40 Slide 40 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Deindustrialization █ Deindustrialization: systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity –Can take the form of corporate restructuring –Downsizing: reductions in a company’s workforce as part of deindustrialization –Social costs cannot be overemphasized Module 50

41 Slide 41 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Research Today █ Affirmative Action –Is affirmative action part of the admissions policy at the college or university you attend? Do you think the policy has helped? –Might affirmative action exclude some qualified White applicants? Module 50

42 Slide 42 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Campaign Financing –The price tag for all presidential and congressional candidates in 2008 was over $5 billion –57% of voters favor limits on campaign spending, but 38% believe a candidate should not be limited in what she or he spends Module 50

43 Slide 43 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Campaign Financing █ Understanding the Issue –Federal Campaign Act of 1974 placed restrictions on donations made to specific candidates for national office Loopholes allowed soft money contributions to political parties, leadership committees, and political action committees Module 50

44 Slide 44 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Campaign Financing █ Understanding the Issue –Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act passed in 2004 Limited soft money Only applies to candidate who accepts federal campaign financing New innovations in spending will emerge along with new cries for reform Module 50

45 Slide 45 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Campaign Financing █ Applying Sociology –Functionalists: political contributions keep public involved in democratic process –Conflict theorists: process allows donors to influence government policymakers in ways that tend to preserve their own wealth. –Interactionists: point out symbolic significance of public perception that big money drives elections in U.S. Module 50

46 Slide 46 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Campaign Financing █ Initiating Policy –Rise of online campaign financing may represent new challenge –Traditional reform groups continue to call for tighter limits on contributions –Supreme Court decision in 2010 allowed businesses, labor unions, and other groups to spend their own money on campaign materials Module 50


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