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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 4: MANY WORLDS (Cultures): GEOGRAPHIES OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE 1."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction How geographic differences are influenced by culture –World view affects perceptions and perceptions affect behavior – Foundational assumptions, attitudes, religion & cosmology –Segregation in the United States –Pejorative and racist place-names 2

3 Introduction How geographic differences develop –Cultural differences over short distances—example of south Florida –Effects of globalization 3

4 Introduction Cultural Geographies –No single way of seeing land and landscape –Places experienced differently between men and women –Relation to self and belonging 4

5 Many cultures Increasing influence of globalization –First use of word culture in the fifteenth century –Term folk culture is invented – relic Example: Amish, Cajun, Gullah,Garifina (Central Americ) –Subcultures – age, economic, regional Examples: “Baby Boomers,” Bikers, Senior Citizens, etc. 5

6 Origin of Folk culture Social custom originates at a hearth Origin of folk customs –Anonymous hearths –Unknown date –Unidentified originators –FOLK SONGS Content derived from everyday life Tell a story – historic event or struggle –16 Tona 6

7 16 Tons Some people say a man is made outta mud A poor man's made outta muscle and blood Muscle and blood and skin and bones A mind that's a-weak and a back that's strong You load sixteen tons, what do you get Another day older and deeper in debt Saint Peter don't you call me 'cause I can't go I owe my soul to the company store 7

8 I was born one mornin' when the sun didn't shine I picked up my shovel and I walked to the mine I loaded sixteen tons of number nine coal And the straw boss said "Well, a-bless my soul" You load sixteen tons, what do you get Another day older and deeper in debt Saint Peter don't you call me 'cause I can't go I owe my soul to the company store I was born one mornin', it was drizzlin' rain Fightin' and trouble are my middle name I was raised in the canebrake by an ol' mama lion Cain't no-a high-toned woman make me walk the line 8

9 Maintaining folk culture by immigrants in a new land. The Human Mosaic9

10 Ethnic minority drummers in China The Human Mosaic10

11 Amish in Pennsylvania 11

12 Amish Settlements 12

13 Amish Diffusion Interregional migration Every adult son is to receive a farm –Finite quantity of suitable land in Lancaster, Pennsylvania –Movement to places where farmland prices are lower and land is available Christian & Todd counties in Kentucky To escape tourists who come to gawk The Human Mosaic13

14 Many cultures Classifying culture traits –Material culture Examples: distinctive tools, utensils, furniture, etc. –Nonmaterial culture (conscious & subconscious) Examples: attitudes, objectives, mores, biases & prejudices 14

15 Material Culture traits (objects): Sicilian Wedding Cart The Human Mosaic15

16 Many cultures Classifying cultures –Folk culture (common characteristics) Maintaining a way of life the way it was in the past Rural people Cohesive Order maintained through religion or family Folk geography Examples: Amish, Cajun, 16

17 Many cultures Classifying cultures –Popular culture Originates at a particular time & Place Usually has a known originator Mainly in urban areas Access to media – particularly the Internet Cash economy Tends to change & respond to fads 17 Chinese Punk Rock BandTrendsetters: the Beetles

18 Hip-Hop culture – distinctive dress w/bling The Human Mosaic18

19 Globalization of Hip-Hop: Tokyo Urban Hip-Hop The Human Mosaic19

20 Hip-Hop art: mural on exhibition The Human Mosaic20

21 Many cultures Classifying cultures –Popular culture Family structure weak Examples of outside influences –Media –Internet Secular institutions of authority –Beetles more popular than Jesus according to John Lennon –Opinions of peers trumps that of parents or religious or educational institutions 21

22 Classifying cultures –Indigenous culture Native Convention of indigenous and tribal peoples Somewhat like folk cultures except by origin Live in colonized homelands –Examples in USA? 22 Ainu on Hokkaido, JapanAustralian Aborigines

23 Folk & Popular sports Modern spectator sports – examples of popular culture Soccer –Began as a British folk sport 11 th century –Became a popular sport (globalization) Diffused to Europe 19 th century Spread with European imperialism The World Cup is a major international event 23

24 Surviving folk sports Britain & former colonies – cricket Ice Hockey – Canada, N. Europe, & Russia China – martial arts Baseball – North America, Japan, Dominican Republic Football – grew out of modified rugby in U.S. Lacrosse – developed from an Iroquois game & spread to Canada, U.S., England & Australia 24

25 Regions of difference Material folk culture regions –Vestiges of folk culture remain in the United States House types Example of African- American culture Mormon 25 House Type Diffusion

26 The Human Mosaic26 Diffusion of New England house types

27 Florissant, MO – French house types 27

28 The Human Mosaic28

29 French vertical log cabins in St. Genevieve, MO 29

30 The Human Mosaic30

31 Regions of difference Material folk culture regions –Example: Québec French folk region, Cajun Louisiana –Can be a force for dissolution or devolution in multi-national states such as Canada Large number of people Located primarily in one large province 31

32 The Human Mosaic32

33 The Human Mosaic33 Britain has granted Scotland its own parliament and Wales may follow. Sometimes granting greater autonomy can stave off a full scale revolt and independence.

34 Regions of difference Is popular culture placeless? –Greater mobility –Less attachment to place –Geographer Weiss—identified 40 “lifestyle clusters” in the United States Used zip codes Subcultures 34

35 Indigenous culture regions –Generally located in more remote areas –Example of “Hill Tribes” of South Asia –Persist in Central America— example: Mayan culture region –Andean region of South America 35 Andean Village

36 Mayan Hut The Human Mosaic36

37 Pamfillo, 18-yr-old Mayan young man in Belize with Jesuit priest Fr. Rich Buhler. Pamfillo was raised in a home like the one in the previous slide. 37

38 Folk and Popular food Customs Food and drink –Customs influenced by environment conditions –People accept or reject foods for cultural (often religious) reasons –Vary from place to place in the United States: preferred types & names of common types The South The North Fast-food consumption spatial variations 38 German Mett....raw pork marinated with spices and onions...yumz!

39 Environmental Influences Fuel scarcity –Soybeans – toxic when eaten raw Changed when cooked but uses much energy Asian solutions – don’t cook –Soy sauce (fermented) –Bean curd (steamed) –Bean sprouts (germinated seeds) –Southern Europe – quick frying uses less fuel –Northern Europe – no shortage of fuel (wood) Foods prepared by slow stewing & roasting –Also provided home heat in a cold climate 39 Pan-fried tofu

40 Food & Drink Taboos Often embedded in religions May reflect environmental concerns –Vegans, etc. Jews from eating pork & some other animals –Kosher preparation guidelines –Certain mixtures are to be avoided Muslims –Pork & alcohol Hindus –Sanctions against eating beef –Many are vegetarians 40

41 World wine production 41

42 Wine Distribution is environmentally influenced –Requirements for wine grapes Soil coarse & well drained Climate – best where precipitation comes in the winter (Mediterranean climate) Exposure to sun planted on hillsides –South-facing in the northern hemisphere –North facing in the southern hemisphere 42

43 Popular Clothing preferences More Developed Countries (MDCs) –Choices reflect occupation & income rather than environment –More affected by globalization (media) LDCs & folk cultures –More influenced by environment and local/regional cultures & religions 43

44 The Human Mosaic44

45 Jeans: America’s great contribution Diffusion of Western (U.S.) popular culture Produced all over the world –People pay premium prices for Levi Strauss – even used pairs Worn everywhere 45

46 The Human Mosaic46

47 Jeans 47

48 Diffusion of Popular Media Television is “King” Internet may be heir apparent 48

49 49

50 Regions of difference Popular music –Easily viewed and obtained from modern m edia – Different styles of music reveal geographical patterns – particularly folk and indigenous music Cajun: Doug Kershaw g-kershaw-mensonge-de-la-fouille_extreme g-kershaw-mensonge-de-la-fouille_extreme –Example of Elvis Presley Changed the nature and performance of popular music on a world-wide scale Likewise, the Beetles world-wide influence 50

51 Regions of difference Vernacular culture regions –Spatial perception of population –Wilbur Zelinsky's vernacular regions –Joseph Brownell sought to delimit “Midwest” –Often perpetuated by mass media The Human Mosaic51

52 Wilbur Zelinsky's vernacular regions The Human Mosaic52

53 Vernacular Architecture It is a type of architecture which takes shape during time and is based on the culture, climate, and materials of it's region as well as on the needs of its inhabitants. It becomes a pattern (model) and is a specification (defining trait) of the region. The Human Mosaic53

54 The Human Mosaic54

55 Diffusion and cultural difference Agricultural fairs –Spread in a folk setting –Example of spread from Yankee folk region –Promoted by agricultural societies Entertainment was added—racetrack and midway Best prize in agricultural products was added The Human Mosaic55

56 Diffusion and cultural difference Blowguns: diffusion or independent invention? –Found in both hemispheres –Probably first used on the island of Borneo – No written record of their beginning or use –Factors that can resolve the issue The Human Mosaic56

57 Amazon Blowgun The Human Mosaic57

58 Blowguns from Borneo The Human Mosaic58

59 Diffusion and cultural difference Diffusion in popular culture –Hierarchical diffusion and McDonald's restaurants –Reverse hierarchical diffusion and Wal- Mart –Role of modern transportation and communications networks The Human Mosaic59

60 Diffusion and cultural difference Advertising –Most effective in popular culture Can determine success or failure of a product Minimized importance of time-distance decay –Image of place The Human Mosaic60

61 Diffusion and cultural difference Communications barriers –Example of radio stations refusing to play punk rock Other forms of music encountered similar problems Live concerts helped spread the music –1950s TV wouldn’t show Elvis below the waist The Human Mosaic61

62 Diffusion and cultural difference Communications barriers –Government censorship Example of Iran Example of Taliban in Afghanistan Not sustainable because of modern communications –1989 Tiananmen Square –Newspapers can act as selective barriers The Human Mosaic62

63 Tiananmen Square Demonstrations 1989 The Human Mosaic63

64 IV.Diffusion and cultural difference Diffusion of the rodeo –Rooted in the ranching culture— neighborhood effect –Started in folk culture Cowboys held contests at roundup time Became formalized with prizes The Human Mosaic64

65 Diffusion and cultural difference Diffusion of the rodeo –Commercial rodeo Example of Wild West show at Omaha Commercial rodeos spread throughout the West and parts of Canada Greatest acceptance in popular culture west of Mississippi and Missouri River The Human Mosaic65

66 Ecologies of difference Indigenous ecology –Most see indigenous cultures as knowledgeable about their environment –During European colonialization, indigenous peoples seen as destroyers of the land The Human Mosaic66

67 Ecologies of difference Indigenous ecology –Indigenous cultures often occupy territory viewed as critical to global diversity Best known example? Example of national parks and other protected areas The Human Mosaic67

68 Ecologies of difference Indigenous ecology –Indigenous cultures often occupy territory viewed as critical to global diversity Tropical rainforests around the world Importance of knowledge for management and land use practices The Human Mosaic68

69 Ecologies of difference Local knowledge –Indigenous technical knowledge (ITK) May be superior to Western scientific knowledge Allowed experimentation with new crops and agricultural techniques –Global economy applies heavy pressure to subsistence economies The Human Mosaic69

70 Ecologies of difference Global economy –Example of the Miskito Indians in Nicaragua Subsistence economy Outside demand for green turtles decimated population Subsistence production in other areas suffered The Human Mosaic70

71 Ecologies of difference Global economy –Indigenous cultures sometimes must seek support from government agencies Example of the Quichua populations in the Ecuadorian Andes Must use outside ideas and technologies to promote their own culture The Human Mosaic71

72 Ecologies of difference Folk ecology –Have close ties to the land –When migrating seek lands similar to ones left behind –Example of Appalachian hill people The Human Mosaic72

73 Ecologies of difference Gendered ecology –Gender is an important variable in cultural ecology –Distinct roles in agroforestry –Example: Diane Rocheleau’s gender study –Environmental planning should address gendered differences The Human Mosaic73

74 Ecologies of difference Ecology of popular culture –People less tied to environment –People have enormous potential for producing ecological disasters –Popular culture impacts Increasing demand for natural resources Air and water pollution Land use –Desert golf courses – poor use of finite water supplies 74

75 Ecology of popular culture –Recreation Increased in affluent regions Recreational machines create air pollution Soil erosion Overtaxing of environments in national parks 75

76 Interaction and difference Introduction –Core beliefs in folk culture limit degree of environmental disturbance –Popular culture has potential, through interaction, to cause massive restructuring 76

77 Interaction and difference Introduction –Cultures are converging –Wilbur Zelinsky's given-name study 77

78 Interaction and difference Mapping personal preference –Media often produces place images Color our perception May be inaccurate Example of Hawaii –People have always formed images of faraway places 78

79 Landscapes of difference Folk architecture –Very distinctive –Little change over time –Traditional, conservative, and functional structures 79

80 Landscapes of difference Folk architecture –Harmony with the environment –Numerous characteristics help classify farmsteads and dwellings Helps to establish cultural influences in a region 80

81 Landscapes of difference Folk housing in Sub-Saharan Africa –Compound of buildings—kraal –Use of local materials –Shapes differ The Human Mosaic81

82 Landscapes of difference Folk housing in Sub-Saharan Africa –Different cultures identified by change in house types –Example: Ndebele culture region The Human Mosaic82

83 Landscapes of difference Folk housing in North America –Few are built today –Yankee folk houses New England “large” house Changed as Yankee folk migrated westward The Human Mosaic83

84 Landscapes of difference Folk housing in North America –Upland southern folk houses Smaller—built of notched logs Dogtrot house French-derived Creole cottage 84

85 Dogtrot house 85

86 French Creole Cottage 86

87 Landscapes of difference Folk housing in North America –Canada Common types with main story atop cellar Often built of stone Description of the Ontario farmhouse 87

88 Landscapes of difference Folk housing in North America –Interpretation of folk architecture is difficult Independent invention versus diffusion May be all that is left of the culture –Florissant »Houses »Street names »Town name »Park name 88

89 Landscapes of difference Landscapes of popular culture Tends to encourage uniformity –However, continually changing styles –Diffusion of fast-food restaurants & commercial logos i.e. the “Golden Arches” –World-wide diffusion of Japanese autos –“Cookie-cutter” approach to building Evolution of the commercial strips and malls From houses to commercial landscapes 89

90 Uniformity vs. Cultural Differences Will folk customs and indigenous culture disappear? –Probably not – cultural elements that resist change Religious beliefs and practices –Taboos: diet & behavior Languages Distinctive dress for special occasions 90

91 Landscapes of difference Landscapes of popular culture –Example: West Edmonton Mall in province of Alberta, Canada Largest indoor mall Includes recreational areas Described as a “landscape of myth and elsewhereness” The Human Mosaic91

92 Landscapes of difference Leisure landscapes –Designed for weekends and vacations –Amenity landscapes—regions with attractive natural features –Example of Minnesota North Woods lake country –Relict buildings collected to form “historylands” The Human Mosaic92

93 Landscapes of difference Elitist landscapes –Clustering by people of similar wealth, education, and taste –The French Riviera Building codes Normal activities gone The Human Mosaic93

94 The Boulders in Carefree, AZ 94

95 The Human Mosaic95

96 Landscapes of difference Elitist landscapes –Gentleman farms in America An avocation for affluent city people Examples in the eastern United States High concentration in the Kentucky Bluegrass Basin The Human Mosaic96

97 Landscapes of difference The American scene –Preeminence of function over form –Fondness for massive structures The Human Mosaic97

98 Landscapes of difference The American scene –Americans regard cultural landscape as unfinished –Collections of heterogeneous buildings –Eye-catching structures The Human Mosaic98


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