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Case Study: Politics in Iran Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. What is the capital city of Iran?

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Presentation on theme: "Case Study: Politics in Iran Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. What is the capital city of Iran?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Case Study: Politics in Iran Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. What is the capital city of Iran?

2 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Country Bio: Iran Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Politics in Iran  World’s only theocracy  Government in which laws grounded in religion and express will of God, clergy exercises supreme power  Established in 1979  Overthrew Mohammad-Reza Shah Pahlavi – last ruler of monarchy  Ruholla Khomeini – clerical leader, authored blueprint for theoretic government, led 1979 revolution, opposed democracy on religious grounds  Divine law, shari’a, interpreted and applied by ulema (religious scholars) precedence over laws made by legislators  World’s only theocracy  Government in which laws grounded in religion and express will of God, clergy exercises supreme power  Established in 1979  Overthrew Mohammad-Reza Shah Pahlavi – last ruler of monarchy  Ruholla Khomeini – clerical leader, authored blueprint for theoretic government, led 1979 revolution, opposed democracy on religious grounds  Divine law, shari’a, interpreted and applied by ulema (religious scholars) precedence over laws made by legislators Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Current Policy Challenges  First decade of Islamic Republic:  Some redistribution of wealth  Leadership mostly from middle-class backgrounds  Adopted populist policies, bettered poor  Poverty, inequality, underemployment continue  Job creation very inadequate  Need to increase economic output: population grows 600,000 a year  Dissatisfaction with status quo among ethnic minorities  Corruption  First decade of Islamic Republic:  Some redistribution of wealth  Leadership mostly from middle-class backgrounds  Adopted populist policies, bettered poor  Poverty, inequality, underemployment continue  Job creation very inadequate  Need to increase economic output: population grows 600,000 a year  Dissatisfaction with status quo among ethnic minorities  Corruption Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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7 Historical Legacy: Twelver Shiism  Never colonized by Europeans  Borders arise from balance of power between shahs and neighbors  Current Iranian state set up 16 th century, Safavid Dynasty  Split between Sunnis (90% of Muslims) and Shiites came after death of Prophet Muhammad  Shiites believe descendants of Prophet only rightful successors/leaders: Imams  Shiites believe Twelfth Imam was last  Never colonized by Europeans  Borders arise from balance of power between shahs and neighbors  Current Iranian state set up 16 th century, Safavid Dynasty  Split between Sunnis (90% of Muslims) and Shiites came after death of Prophet Muhammad  Shiites believe descendants of Prophet only rightful successors/leaders: Imams  Shiites believe Twelfth Imam was last Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Historical Legacy: Multiethnic Nation  Persian speakers are largest, half of population  Azeri Turks, Lurs, Baluchis, Arabs, Turkmens  Prerevolutionary elites defined nation as Persian  Post-revolution: Twelver Shiism as defining trait  Conflicts: ignoring of ethnic minorities and non-Twelver Shiites  Persian speakers are largest, half of population  Azeri Turks, Lurs, Baluchis, Arabs, Turkmens  Prerevolutionary elites defined nation as Persian  Post-revolution: Twelver Shiism as defining trait  Conflicts: ignoring of ethnic minorities and non-Twelver Shiites Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Historical Legacy: Constitutionalism in Iran  1905-06: widespread dissatisfaction led to constitution  Believed citizenry had right to elect representative parliament  Ayatollah Muhammad-Husayn Na’inni: Twelfth Imam chose to remain in hiding, believers are his deputies  Reconciled Shiism’s beliefs with modern constitutionalism, legacy revolutionaries of 1979 could not ignore in creating Islamic state  1905-06: widespread dissatisfaction led to constitution  Believed citizenry had right to elect representative parliament  Ayatollah Muhammad-Husayn Na’inni: Twelfth Imam chose to remain in hiding, believers are his deputies  Reconciled Shiism’s beliefs with modern constitutionalism, legacy revolutionaries of 1979 could not ignore in creating Islamic state Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Historical Legacy: The Pahlavi Monarchy  1921 coup ended rule of old establishment  1941-1953 political system included 3 main camps:  Pro-Western conservative (Shah, landlords)  Pro-Soviet communist Tudeh party  Neutralist National Front  Second ruler of Pahlavi Dynasty (1963)  Government monopoly on use of force  Suppression of civil society and secular opposition  Unified legal code, functioning civil service  New opposition, Ruhollah Khomeini: arrested, exiled, triumphant return in 1979  1921 coup ended rule of old establishment  1941-1953 political system included 3 main camps:  Pro-Western conservative (Shah, landlords)  Pro-Soviet communist Tudeh party  Neutralist National Front  Second ruler of Pahlavi Dynasty (1963)  Government monopoly on use of force  Suppression of civil society and secular opposition  Unified legal code, functioning civil service  New opposition, Ruhollah Khomeini: arrested, exiled, triumphant return in 1979 Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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12 Historical Legacy: The Islamic Revolution  Shah began liberalizing Iran’s political system  Groups pushed for greater reforms  Revolutionary uprising: Khomeini best organized  1979 New Constitution  Parliament elected by universal suffrage  Shah replaced by elected president  1979 to 1981  Secular moderates, competition for power  Khomeini gained upper hand, began instituting Islamic law in all spheres of public life  Shah began liberalizing Iran’s political system  Groups pushed for greater reforms  Revolutionary uprising: Khomeini best organized  1979 New Constitution  Parliament elected by universal suffrage  Shah replaced by elected president  1979 to 1981  Secular moderates, competition for power  Khomeini gained upper hand, began instituting Islamic law in all spheres of public life Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Historical Legacy: Iran-Iraq War  Khomeini began calling for overthrow of Iraq’s Saddam Hussein, provoked attack  War enabled revolutionary regime to consolidate power, means for suppressing dissent  Created “war” generation of veterans calling for social order, more political participation  Khomeini began calling for overthrow of Iraq’s Saddam Hussein, provoked attack  War enabled revolutionary regime to consolidate power, means for suppressing dissent  Created “war” generation of veterans calling for social order, more political participation Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 Institutions of the Islamic Republic  Leader  Highest authority in Islamic Republic  Combines religious, temporal authority  Assembly of Experts  Choose Leader  President  Elected by universal suffrage every four years  Must be Twelver Shiite and male  Does not have to be cleric  Leader  Highest authority in Islamic Republic  Combines religious, temporal authority  Assembly of Experts  Choose Leader  President  Elected by universal suffrage every four years  Must be Twelver Shiite and male  Does not have to be cleric Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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16 Institutions of the Islamic Republic  Parliament  Unicameral, the Majles: 290 members  Must be Muslims but Constitution provides for 5 members to represent Christians (3), Jews (1), Zoroastrians (1)  Two features of political system limit the Majle’s legislative role:  Many policies, rules, regulations are set by unelected specialized bodies  All bills subject to veto of Council of Guardians  Parliament  Unicameral, the Majles: 290 members  Must be Muslims but Constitution provides for 5 members to represent Christians (3), Jews (1), Zoroastrians (1)  Two features of political system limit the Majle’s legislative role:  Many policies, rules, regulations are set by unelected specialized bodies  All bills subject to veto of Council of Guardians Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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18 Institutions of the Islamic Republic  Council of Guardians  6 members of ulema, 6 lay Muslim lawyers  Ulema appointed by Leader, lawyers nominated by Judiciary, approved by Parliament  Expediency Council: for determination of what is in interest of regime  Collective body for arbitration of conflict  Leader appoints 30 members of council  Helps leader formulate policy  An Honestly Undemocratic Constitution  Multiple Power Centers  Council of Guardians  6 members of ulema, 6 lay Muslim lawyers  Ulema appointed by Leader, lawyers nominated by Judiciary, approved by Parliament  Expediency Council: for determination of what is in interest of regime  Collective body for arbitration of conflict  Leader appoints 30 members of council  Helps leader formulate policy  An Honestly Undemocratic Constitution  Multiple Power Centers Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Elections and Parties  The Prerevolutionary Legacy  Limited competitive elections  Suffrage for women  Parties weak  Postrevolutionary Parties  Islamic Republican Party (IRP)  Factionalism: ideological differences  Conservatives  Pragmatists  Reformers  1990s: Khatami’s election, more parties appeared on scene, alliances are fluid  The Prerevolutionary Legacy  Limited competitive elections  Suffrage for women  Parties weak  Postrevolutionary Parties  Islamic Republican Party (IRP)  Factionalism: ideological differences  Conservatives  Pragmatists  Reformers  1990s: Khatami’s election, more parties appeared on scene, alliances are fluid Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Elections and Parties: Presidential Elections  1980 first ever presidential election  Next four elections: Khomeini associates  Khatami:  Outsider, appealed to those who had been humiliated by regime  Promised greater cultural openness, personal freedom  2005 elections: conservative mayor of Tehran, Mahud Ahmadinejad  1980 first ever presidential election  Next four elections: Khomeini associates  Khatami:  Outsider, appealed to those who had been humiliated by regime  Promised greater cultural openness, personal freedom  2005 elections: conservative mayor of Tehran, Mahud Ahmadinejad Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 Elections and Parties Parliamentary Elections  Multimember constituencies  Voter names as many candidates as there are seats in constituency  Top vote-getters in each constituency are elected, if receive 50% of total vote  Elections of 2004  Council of Guardians disallowed Reformist candidates  Call for boycott of election, 50% of population went to polls  Elections of 2008  Reformist candidates disallowed, turnout again high  New outspoken critics of Ahmadinejad  Multimember constituencies  Voter names as many candidates as there are seats in constituency  Top vote-getters in each constituency are elected, if receive 50% of total vote  Elections of 2004  Council of Guardians disallowed Reformist candidates  Call for boycott of election, 50% of population went to polls  Elections of 2008  Reformist candidates disallowed, turnout again high  New outspoken critics of Ahmadinejad Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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23 Elections and Parties: Local Elections  1906 Constitution provided for elected local government councils, never constituted  Similar provision, 1979 Constitution, began 1999  Iranians (first time) elected city, town, village councils  Reformists won control over most councils  Elections 2003: low turnout  Mostly conservatives, result: very conservative councils  December 2006: new elections  Participation increased  Ahmadinejad conservatives won only a few seats  Rebuke for president’s handling of economy  1906 Constitution provided for elected local government councils, never constituted  Similar provision, 1979 Constitution, began 1999  Iranians (first time) elected city, town, village councils  Reformists won control over most councils  Elections 2003: low turnout  Mostly conservatives, result: very conservative councils  December 2006: new elections  Participation increased  Ahmadinejad conservatives won only a few seats  Rebuke for president’s handling of economy Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Political Culture  System level  Iranian nationalism, ancient Persia  Vanguard of Islamic world’s struggle against Western domination  Ethic nationalism has become stronger among Iran’s non-Persian populations  Right to develop nuclear energy  Government used issue to shore up legitimacy  System level  Iranian nationalism, ancient Persia  Vanguard of Islamic world’s struggle against Western domination  Ethic nationalism has become stronger among Iran’s non-Persian populations  Right to develop nuclear energy  Government used issue to shore up legitimacy Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Political Culture  Process level  Islamic revolution increased participation in politics  Some disaffected  Extreme individualism  Lack of trust of government  Periodic emergence of charismatic leaders  Process level  Islamic revolution increased participation in politics  Some disaffected  Extreme individualism  Lack of trust of government  Periodic emergence of charismatic leaders Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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27 Political Culture  Policy level  Oil: Iranians expect state to provide welfare, material well-being for everybody, alleviate gap between rich and poor  Corruption  Suspicion of private enterprise  Populism  Policy level  Oil: Iranians expect state to provide welfare, material well-being for everybody, alleviate gap between rich and poor  Corruption  Suspicion of private enterprise  Populism Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Political Socialization  Education System: first to be Islamicized  Military and Veterans: conscription  Religion and Religious Institutions: more divisive than unifying  Mass Media: role is unifying and divisive  Family and Social Groups: family dynamic changing, popular voices no influence  Education System: first to be Islamicized  Military and Veterans: conscription  Religion and Religious Institutions: more divisive than unifying  Mass Media: role is unifying and divisive  Family and Social Groups: family dynamic changing, popular voices no influence Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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30 Recruiting the Political Elite  What kinds of people govern Iran?  Under Shah:  Small class of educated, secular Iranians who had personal loyalty to monarch  Under Islamic Republic:  Personalism  Revolutionary pedigrees  Clergy recruited into state  Nonclerical parliamentarians, ministers emerge from educational, military institutions  Many new elite have come from ranks of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and Basij  Kinship ties  What kinds of people govern Iran?  Under Shah:  Small class of educated, secular Iranians who had personal loyalty to monarch  Under Islamic Republic:  Personalism  Revolutionary pedigrees  Clergy recruited into state  Nonclerical parliamentarians, ministers emerge from educational, military institutions  Many new elite have come from ranks of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and Basij  Kinship ties Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Interest Articulation and Aggregation  Forms of interest articulation and aggregation  Noninstitutional  Clientelism and patron-client networks  Institutionalized  Voting, weakness of party organizations  Institutional Groups and Professional Organizations  Nonassociational Social Groups  Demonstrations and Public Protests  Forms of interest articulation and aggregation  Noninstitutional  Clientelism and patron-client networks  Institutionalized  Voting, weakness of party organizations  Institutional Groups and Professional Organizations  Nonassociational Social Groups  Demonstrations and Public Protests Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 Policy Formulation  State Institutions Mentioned in the Constitution  No state policy may contradict Islam  Leader  Expediency Council  National Security Council  Council of Guardians  Executive branch and parliament  State Institutions not Mentioned in the Constitution  Supreme Council for the Cultural Revolution  Power Centers and the Difficulty of Coordination  Multiple power centers, policies often not coordinated  Judiciary, Revolutionary Guards  State Institutions Mentioned in the Constitution  No state policy may contradict Islam  Leader  Expediency Council  National Security Council  Council of Guardians  Executive branch and parliament  State Institutions not Mentioned in the Constitution  Supreme Council for the Cultural Revolution  Power Centers and the Difficulty of Coordination  Multiple power centers, policies often not coordinated  Judiciary, Revolutionary Guards Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Policy Formulation  Economic Policymaking: most contentious topic  1980s liberal approach: private sector, market mechanisms  Mixed results, led to hardship, faced opposition  Under Ahmadinejad:  Populist rhetoric of redistribution, privatization  Uses government contracts to reward allies  Spreading Progress and Prosperity  State educational system good  Birth control, health care  Roads, basic services  Economic Policymaking: most contentious topic  1980s liberal approach: private sector, market mechanisms  Mixed results, led to hardship, faced opposition  Under Ahmadinejad:  Populist rhetoric of redistribution, privatization  Uses government contracts to reward allies  Spreading Progress and Prosperity  State educational system good  Birth control, health care  Roads, basic services Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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35 Policy Outcomes  Islamization of Society  Alcohol banned except for non-Muslim minorities  Veiling enforced in public spaces  State committed to minimizing contact between unrelated men, women  Religious content of education vastly expanded  Gruesome physical punishment to adulterers, homosexuals, offenders of religious morality  Outwardly a success, underneath surface: bootlegging, prostitution, drugs, corruption  Religious practice has become more private  Islamization of Society  Alcohol banned except for non-Muslim minorities  Veiling enforced in public spaces  State committed to minimizing contact between unrelated men, women  Religious content of education vastly expanded  Gruesome physical punishment to adulterers, homosexuals, offenders of religious morality  Outwardly a success, underneath surface: bootlegging, prostitution, drugs, corruption  Religious practice has become more private Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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37 Policy Outcomes  Gender Relations  Legal restrictions on women’s rights  Discriminations instituted by Islamic Republic  Fields of study closed to women  Sports restricted, attire incompatible with veiling  Compete in sports, at locations men not admitted  Women increasing participation in public life  Many working outside home  Universities’ restrictions on studies being lifted  Mal-veiling  Islamic feminism  Gender Relations  Legal restrictions on women’s rights  Discriminations instituted by Islamic Republic  Fields of study closed to women  Sports restricted, attire incompatible with veiling  Compete in sports, at locations men not admitted  Women increasing participation in public life  Many working outside home  Universities’ restrictions on studies being lifted  Mal-veiling  Islamic feminism Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Policy Outcomes  Foreign Policy  Under Shah - US an ally  Now – neither East nor West  1990s: national interest rather than exporting revolution dominated  Third World desire to escape hegemony of West  Regional trade in goods, services with Middle East  Emboldened Kurds of Iran  Main issue confronting Iranian diplomacy is nuclear program  International Atomic Energy Agency monitoring  Sanctions  Foreign Policy  Under Shah - US an ally  Now – neither East nor West  1990s: national interest rather than exporting revolution dominated  Third World desire to escape hegemony of West  Regional trade in goods, services with Middle East  Emboldened Kurds of Iran  Main issue confronting Iranian diplomacy is nuclear program  International Atomic Energy Agency monitoring  Sanctions Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

39 Conclusion  Faced many challenges and survived  Reopening of debate: What is the proper relation between religion and politics in Iran?  Faced many challenges and survived  Reopening of debate: What is the proper relation between religion and politics in Iran? Copyright © 2012, 2010, 2008 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.


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