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Chapter 16 Injury and Violence © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.1
Injury: Creating Safe Environments Unintentional injuries are those that are not purposefully inflicted The leading causes of unintentional injury death for Americans of all ages are: –Motor vehicle crashes –Poisoning –Falls –Choking –Drowning © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.2
Motor Vehicle Safety Motor vehicle crashes account for 40% of all unintentional injury deaths The highest number occur in the young (aged 16–19) as well as the old ( > 75 years) Men are more likely than women to be killed in car crashes, although women are more likely to be involved in a car crash than men About 85% of motor vehicle crashes are caused by improper driving such as: –Speeding –Failing to yield the right of way –Disregarding signals and stop signs –Making improper turns –Following too closely © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.3
Motor Vehicle Safety Defensive driving: anticipating potential hazards by keeping your eyes on other drivers and monitoring conditions Other factors that contribute to crashes: –Driver inattention Young children in car Events outside the vehicle Talking on cell phones Drowsiness –Aggressive driving –Alcohol-impaired driving –Environmental hazards Weather conditions such as fog, ice, wind, and glare © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.4
Distance Covered While Texting © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.5 Typical distance covered while texting.
Approaches to Motor Vehicle Safety NHTSA standards Restraint systems –Safety belts One in seven adults does not wear a seat belt on every trip –Airbags: passive restraints that protects passengers from impact with the interior of the vehicle in a crash –Second collision: impact of an unbelted occupant with the windshield, steering wheel, doors, dashboard, other passengers, etc. Emergency notification systems © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.6
Other Safety Concerns Pet restraints –Unrestrained pets can distract and cause injury to a driver and passengers in an accident Motorcycle safety –Motorcyclists are 5 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a motor vehicle crash, and about 26 times more likely to be injured Pedestrian safety –About 324 people in the U.S. go to the ER for pedestrian-related injuries every 24 hours –About 45% of deaths occur when pedestrians enter or cross streets Children and older adults especially vulnerable © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.7
Recreational Safety Injuries can occur in a wide variety of recreational activities Some recreational activities or sports which should be of concern are: –Bicycling –Operating all-terrain vehicles –Pocket bikes –Swimming, boating, waterskiing, jet skiing –Rock climbing © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.8
Home Safety 40% of all disabling injuries occur in the home Home injuries and deaths occur primarily as a result of the following: –Falls –Fires –Poisonings –Choking –Temperature-related injuries –Excessive noise –Concussions Having a qualified person inspect your home for potential hazards could prevent future injury and property damage © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.9
Temperature-Related Injuries Each year many people die due to excessive temperature conditions –Danger is highest for people 75 years and older Excessive heat and humidity can lead to heat stroke –Each year, 37 children die in vehicles Excessive cold can lead to a condition called hypothermia, which can lead to death © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.10
Providing Emergency Aid You can help others who have been injured or are in life-threatening situations with training in first aid and emergency rescue techniques Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is used when someone is not breathing and a pulse cannot be found Many organizations offer classes –American Heart Association –American Red Cross –Community or campus resource centers © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.11
Work Safety Improved over the past decades as a result of occupational laws and advances in safety technology Back injuries account for 24% of total Common injuries result from: –Improper lifting –Heavy backpacks –Extensive computer use –Strain on neck, back, arms, eyes –Repetitive strain injuries –Carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS) © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.12
Proper Lifting © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.13 Proper lifting technique.
Workstation Setup © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.14 Proper workstation setup.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.15 Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).
Natural Disasters Natural disasters: those caused by natural forces Such events can result in loss of life, severe injury, or property damage Tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, wildfires, earthquakes Individuals can help themselves by preparing as much as they can for the types of disasters likely to occur where they live © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.16
Violence in the United States Violence: the use of force or the threat of force to inflict intentional injury, physical or psychological, on oneself or to another person Assault: an attack by one person on another using force or the threat of force to intentionally inflict injury Aggravated assault: an attack that causes bodily injury, usually with a weapon or other means capable of producing grave bodily harm or death Simple assault: an attack without a weapon that causes less serious physical harm © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.17
Crime Rates and Violence Facts Rates of violent crime are actually lower in the U.S. than in most other developed countries, except in the area of homicide Rates of homicide committed with a firearm are higher in the U.S. than any other country Firearms are attributed to about a third of all violent crimes and 70% of all homicides A third of women killed are killed by their husbands or boyfriends One in five child homicides are committed by a family member © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.18
What Accounts for Violence? Risk factors: –Age, sex, ethnicity –Socioeconomic level; lack of economic, educational, or employment opportunities –Exposure to media violence –Use of drugs and/or alcohol –Availability of guns –Public school system –Family background: child abuse; criminal activity by family members; lack of positive role models; chaotic family organization –Biological factors © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.19
Violence on College Campuses The most common campus crime is burglary, followed by motor vehicle theft and aggravated assault Since the Virginia Tech shooting, campuses have expanded emergency communication measures The Campus Sexual Assault Victims’ Bill of Rights Act requires administrators to provide justice, medical treatment, and psychological counseling for crime victims and survivors Reduced incidents of hazing and hate speech have created a safer environment © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.20
Factors that Motivate or Trigger Direct Assaults © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.21 Factors that motivated or triggered the direct assaults.
Sexual Violence Sexual assault is any sexual behavior that is forced on someone without his or her consent –Rape: forced sexual intercourse –Forced sodomy: oral or anal sexual acts –Child molestation –Incest –Fondling Sexual coercion is the imposition of sexual activity on someone through the threat of nonphysical punishment, promise of reward, or verbal pressure © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.22
Rape Statutory rape: sexual intercourse with someone under the age of consent whether consent was given or not Stranger rape: committed by someone unknown to the victim Acquaintance rape: committed by someone known to the victim Date rape: committed by someone with whom the victim has a dating relationship Male rape: the victim is a man © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.23
Sexual Assault on Campus Red zone: period when female students are at greatest risk for sexual assault –First-year: first few days or weeks of initial fall semester; second-year: entire first semester Follow these tips: –If you feel unsafe, trust the feeling –Avoid being isolated with someone you don’t know –Know your surroundings –Don’t post your location online or on voicemail –Use a buddy system, and don’t go out alone at night –Lock your door –Practice safe drinking © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.24
What to Do If You Are Raped Do whatever you need to do and can do to survive Seek help as soon as possible by contacting law enforcement To preserve evidence, do not shower, change your clothes, or modify the crime scene Document everything you can remember about the attack Visit a hospital afterwards to be given a rape exam Rape counseling is critical to recovery © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.25
Culture of Secrecy Colleges and universities may be underreporting sexual assaults –When victims seek help from certain types of counselors and not the police, their assaults are not reported Some colleges reply on mediation procedures, a practice explicitly discouraged by the departments of Justice and Education Victims who come forward with an assault complaint often feel betrayed by mediation and gag policies –Victims should contact an advocacy group © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.26
Child Sexual Abuse Any interaction between a child and an adult or an older child for the sexual gratification of the perpetrator –Incest: sexual activity between family members, a particularly traumatic form of child sexual abuse Many cases go unreported The most frequently abused children are 9–11 years old; girls are abused three times as often as boys Victims suffer long-term effects Child sexual abusers may or may not be pedophiles © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.27
Sexual Harassment Includes two broad types of behavior or situations: –A person of authority who offers benefits for sexual favors or threatens retaliation for withholding sex –Suggestive language or intimidating conduct that creates a hostile atmosphere that interferes with a person’s work or academic performance Is it harassment or flirting? –One person’s power over the other –Behavior that puts pressure on a person –Desire to end the interaction © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.28
Stalking and Cyberstalking Stalking: malicious following, harassing, or threatening of one person by another –Women are four times as likely as men to be victims of stalking Cyberstalking: use of electronic media to pursue harass, or contact another person who has not solicited the contact –Threatening, harassing, sexually provocative, or other unwanted e-mails –Attack or impersonation of the person on bulletin boards or in chat rooms © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.29
Family and Intimate Partner Violence Family violence is a broad term that includes several forms of violence or abuse: –Child abuse –Elder abuse –Violence against persons with disabilities Intimate partner violence or domestic violence is abuse against one’s partner in an intimate relationship –The vast majority of victims are women (95–98%) –The American Medical Association has stated that the home is more dangerous to women than city streets © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.30
Family and Intimate Partner Violence Domestic violence is usually characterized by a recurring pattern of escalating violence—a cycle of abuse –Sometimes referred to as battered woman syndrome, but can occur in any relationship –Tension build-up, violent outburst, “honeymoon” period, often promises of change; and repeat Dating violence is widespread: 43 percent of college women experience violent or abusive dating behaviors Help is available from social service agencies, hotlines, shelters, and more © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.31
Cycle of Abuse © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.32 Cycle of domestic violence.
Workplace Violence, Hate Crimes, and Terrorism Workplace violence: violent acts directed toward persons at work or on duty Hate crimes: crimes motivated by bias against the victim’s ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, or disability Terrorism: violence directed against persons or property, including civilian populations, for the purpose of instilling fear and engendering a sense of helplessness © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.33
The Role of Guns: Facilitating Violence Guns contribute to the lethality of any violent incident “Keep and bear arms” may not be as important today as in colonial times Proponents of gun control support waiting periods for gun purchases, licensing of guns, restrictions on access by young people, and safer guns Advocates for the right to bear arms include Students for Concealed Carry on Campus –Argue students need handguns for self-defense © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.34
The Role of Media and Entertainment Violent acts occur more frequently in movies and TV than in real life Repeated exposure may lead to habituation and desensitization Prominent medical groups have concluded there is a connection between violence in mass media and aggressive behavior in children The entertainment industry maintains these studies demonstrate only possible associations, and attempts at regulation would border on censorship © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.35
Supporting Families and Communities Families teach children self-control and constructive ways to deal with anger, frustration, and destructive impulses Communities can help provide safe physical environments that are less conducive to criminal activity –Neighborhoods where people look out for each other are less inviting College campuses need to continue and adapt prevention efforts and to promote gender equality, healthy relationships, healthy sexuality, and civility © 2013 McGraw-Hill Education. All Rights Reserved.36
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