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Psychological Assessment

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological Assessment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological Assessment
Chapter Sixteen Psychological Assessment

2 Psychological Assessments
Important for evaluating the mental health of older adults Need to identify psychological areas of decline and recognize appropriate interventions Assessment tools provide a brief methodological approach for noting changes

3 Mental Health Absence of mental disease
Mental health wellness includes Clear meaning and purpose in life Strong reality orientation Ability to cope with life’s situations Capable of maintaining open, creative relationships

4 Cognition Mental activity that involves processing information
Complex and involves several abilities or functions Memory Active individuals have better memory Decrease in memory is symptom of most cognitive disorders common in older adults

5 Cognition Memory (cont.) Perception
Memory is important to a person’s ability to think Short term memory measured in seconds Long term memory measured in minutes and longer Perception One’s awareness of environment Nurses need to understand the perceptual world of their patients

6 Cognition Perception (cont.) Perception has an emotional component
Normally evaluated based on past experiences Perceptional distortions also known as hallucinations and delusional thinking

7 Cognition Orientation
Person’s awareness of self in the context of a particular time and place Assess orientation for person, place, and time Poor orientation is symptom of brain disease

8 Cognition Thinking Higher level Lower level
Form concepts and think in an abstract manner More fragile Lower level Concrete thoughts More enduring Less effected by brain injury

9 Cognition Communicating Calculating
Human thoughts reflected in language Language problems common in cerebrovascular and dementing disorders Calculating Assessed in relationship to person’s education level and intelligence

10 Cognition Problem solving
Problem-solving skills are essential for a person to function in any environment

11 Assessment Tools Mental status examinations
Most commonly used for psychological assessment Assess for cognitive ability as well as level of consciousness Brief assessment tools are easier to use with older adults

12 Assessment Tools Easy tools to use
Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) Mental Status Questionnaire (MSQ) Cognitive Capacity Screening Exam (CCSE) Test results influenced by educational level of person being tested

13 Assessment Tools Initial tests provide a baseline for comparison of changes over time Assessment of memory includes reception, storage, and retrieval Assessment for orientation includes time, place, and person

14 Assessment Tools Assessment of level of orientation includes
four levels Alert Lethargy Stuporous Comatose

15 Assessment Tools Delirium is assessed by recognizing changes in levels of consciousness and levels of orientation Validity Does the question really measure what is being tested? Reliability Will two nurses get the same response from a patient?

16 Assessment Tools Assess an individual Assessment techniques
On admission When acute changes occur Assessment techniques Timing Allow person to select the appropriate time Privacy Ensure confidentiality

17 Assessment Tools Assessment technique (cont.) Assessment results
Eliminate interruptions May have affect on reliability and validity of results Positively introduce assessment tool Assessment results Use to patient’s benefit Make information accessible

18 Applications in Clinical Practice
Use for unit assignment for new admission Identify person’s strengths and weaknesses Use as basis for care planning Broad determination of the effects of an intervention Assist with diagnosis Monitor improvement or decline

19 Other Assessments Assessing depression Assessing pain
Depression is prevalent in older adults May predict the onset of a disability Assessing pain Chronic pain may impact persons ability to rehabilitate Behavioral problems may stem from pain

20 Other Assessments Assessing pain
Barriers to assessing pain include cognitive impairments, delirium, dementia Methods of assessing Visual observation Assessment questions Pain scales

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