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Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Sixteen Police Technology Hi-Tech Crime.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Sixteen Police Technology Hi-Tech Crime."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Sixteen Police Technology Hi-Tech Crime

2 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Learning Objectives The difference between computer crime, computer related crime and technology crime. The difference between computer crime, computer related crime and technology crime.computer crimecomputer crime Why Hi-Tech crime may be under-reported. Why Hi-Tech crime may be under-reported. How the Internet changed traditional crime. How the Internet changed traditional crime. Explore system attack, theft of services and software piracy. Explore system attack, theft of services and software piracy. Explore the Independent Component Doctrine. Explore the Independent Component Doctrine.

3 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Hi Tech Crime Technology has changed the nature of crime – to prevent, deter and arrest you must understand the nature of the crime. Was the computer the target? Was the technology inside the computer the target? Did the computer facilitate the crime? Or, has the technology morphed the nature of a traditional crime?

4 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Computer Crime The computer is the object of the attack; however, the attack is not physical, it is virtual – The computer is the object of the attack; however, the attack is not physical, it is virtual – Virus Virus Hacking Hacking Theft of services Theft of services

5 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime These types of crimes occur when the offender uses a computer to: These types of crimes occur when the offender uses a computer to: Commit a traditional crime Commit a traditional crime The computer is used to commit the crime. The computer is used to commit the crime. Stores evidence of a crime Stores evidence of a crime The computer is used to facilitate the crime. The computer is used to facilitate the crime. Software Piracy Software Piracy

6 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Technology Crime A crime directed at a technology, other than a computer A crime directed at a technology, other than a computer Theft of services – cellular telephones, cable television Theft of services – cellular telephones, cable television Theft of computer components Theft of computer components

7 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Hi Tech Crime ClassificationUnique FeatureTypes of crime ComputerComputer system or capability is the object of the crime. Viruses, theft of system capabilities Computer Related Computer facilitates crime or keeps records of crime. Some are traditional crimes, others are crime created as a result of computer age. Traditional: Child pornography, Narcotics Trafficking Non-Traditional: Software Piracy, Internet Fraud. Technology Crime Technology is stolen, or other technology services are stolen Computer Hardware theft, theft of cellular telephone service, theft of cable television services

8 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Viruses A malicious software program which attempts to replicate itself and spread. A malicious software program which attempts to replicate itself and spread. Most commonly spread by attachment, file download or infected disc Most commonly spread by attachment, file download or infected disc Attaches to executable program Attaches to executable program Sometimes to use host computer to infect others via list. Sometimes to use host computer to infect others via list. Causes disruption, including complete failure Causes disruption, including complete failure

9 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Viruses Viruses can spread rapidly, in some instances a computer virus can circumnavigate the globe in under an hour – infecting millions of computers Screen Capture – Panda Software

10 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Hacking, Cracking and Whacking Hacking refers to the non-malicious virtual entry into a software program. Hacking refers to the non-malicious virtual entry into a software program. May still be illegal May still be illegal A non-illegal aspect might be purchasing a computer game and hacking it to ease your play A non-illegal aspect might be purchasing a computer game and hacking it to ease your play Cracking refers to the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program, system or network. Cracking refers to the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program, system or network.

11 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Hacking, Cracking and Whacking Whacking is the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program, system or network via wireless connection.

12 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Virtual Street Names Coders – Semi-professional software engineers who write code and experiment in virtual zoos. Their codes are sometimes used by the cyber-punks. Coders – Semi-professional software engineers who write code and experiment in virtual zoos. Their codes are sometimes used by the cyber-punks. Cyber-punks – anti-social, angry; they write and use code for malicious purposes. Cyber-punks – anti-social, angry; they write and use code for malicious purposes. Old Guard Hackers – Generally, no malicious intent. However, their software is often used by cyber-punks. Old Guard Hackers – Generally, no malicious intent. However, their software is often used by cyber-punks.

13 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Crime Virtual Street Names Cyber-terrorists – Professional criminals who sell their computer skills. Often used in corporate espionage. Cyber-terrorists – Professional criminals who sell their computer skills. Often used in corporate espionage. Old-School Hackers – Belief that Internet is open source. No criminal intent. Old-School Hackers – Belief that Internet is open source. No criminal intent. Script kiddies – juvenile cyber-punks. Script kiddies – juvenile cyber-punks. Phreaker – uses technology to steal telephone system capabilities Phreaker – uses technology to steal telephone system capabilities

14 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime The Internet affords a wider net of victims. The Internet affords a wider net of victims. The Internet affords greater anonymity The Internet affords greater anonymity The Internet can connect offenders together The Internet can connect offenders together The Internet makes jurisdiction issues difficult. The Internet makes jurisdiction issues difficult. The Internet is new to law enforcement. The Internet is new to law enforcement.

15 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime Crimes Against Children Use of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to contact children. Use of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to contact children. Arrange meetings. Arrange meetings. Engage in sexual talk, exchange of images. Engage in sexual talk, exchange of images. Use of the Internet to exchange ideas on committing crimes against children. Use of the Internet to exchange ideas on committing crimes against children. Use of the Internet to exchange images of children. Use of the Internet to exchange images of children.

16 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime New Information Steganography – from the greek “steganos” meaning hidden and “graphy” meaning writing. Steganography – from the greek “steganos” meaning hidden and “graphy” meaning writing. The process of hiding messages or images inside of the coding of images. The process of hiding messages or images inside of the coding of images. It is considered the newest challenge to law enforcement’s prosecution of pedophiles. It is considered the newest challenge to law enforcement’s prosecution of pedophiles. It may have been used by international terrorist to transmit messages to remote cells. It may have been used by international terrorist to transmit messages to remote cells.

17 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime Fraud The “box of rocks” becomes auction fraud. The “box of rocks” becomes auction fraud. On the street – offender uses a sealed package to entice victim. On the Internet – photographs and descriptions are used. On the street – offender uses a sealed package to entice victim. On the Internet – photographs and descriptions are used. The Pigeon Drop becomes the Nigerian 419 scam. The Pigeon Drop becomes the Nigerian 419 scam. On the street found money entices the victim. On the Internet – is used to describe inheritances, overages, etc. On the street found money entices the victim. On the Internet – is used to describe inheritances, overages, etc.

18 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime Fraud In most fraud were the victim is an active participant the street and the Internet share a common theme – The victim’s thought they were getting something for nothing!

19 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime Software Piracy A very broad category that involves the theft of any intellectual property using computer, primarily the internet. A very broad category that involves the theft of any intellectual property using computer, primarily the internet. Illegal music downloads. Illegal music downloads. Copy Right infringement Copy Right infringement Trademark infringement Trademark infringement Illegal downloads of music. Illegal downloads of music. Copying any work, including software, music, written work and providing it to a third person. Copying any work, including software, music, written work and providing it to a third person.

20 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime Fraud Credit card fraud and theft used to “Phish.” An looks like it comes from a legitimate source. Asks for personal information which is then to steal the victim’s identity or using the victim’s credit. Personal information is hacked from a legitimate source

21 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Computer Related Crime Fraud Pump and Dump s and websites used to drive up or down the price of an equity. The offender then sells/buys accordingly Touting Employee of legitimate publication publishes false or exaggerated news

22 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Technology Crime Theft of components. Theft of components. Shoplifting Shoplifting Burglary Burglary Hijacking Hijacking Theft of cellular telephone services. Theft of cellular telephone services. Theft of telephone service Theft of telephone service Theft of cable television Theft of cable television

23 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Legal Aspects of Computer Crime Computer CrimeComputer Crime Approximately half of the states modeled their computer crime related statutes after the 1977 and 1979 versions of the Federal Computer Systems Protection Act. computer crime

24 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Independent Component Doctrine The Search and Seizure of computer equipment is protected by the Fourth Amendment. The Search and Seizure of computer equipment is protected by the Fourth Amendment. Generally, a desk top computer consists of a computer, monitor, printer and other peripheral devices. Generally, a desk top computer consists of a computer, monitor, printer and other peripheral devices. Investigators should consider listing each component separately on the search warrant Investigators should consider listing each component separately on the search warrant

25 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Jurisdiction One of the most difficult issues. Greatly benefits the offender. Offender can live in one state (or country) and victim in another. Different laws. Poor interagency cooperation

26 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Under-Reported Federal Bureau of Investigation recently updated the Uniform Crime Reporting to include certain technology related crimes. Federal Bureau of Investigation recently updated the Uniform Crime Reporting to include certain technology related crimes. Victims don’t know they are victims Victims don’t know they are victims Companies stand to loose customer confidence if breach is reported. Companies stand to loose customer confidence if breach is reported. Law enforcement is often weak in its response Law enforcement is often weak in its response

27 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Task Forces Combine investigative and computer expertise. Combine investigative and computer expertise. Share costs. Share costs. Help solve jurisdictional problems. Help solve jurisdictional problems. Help the exchange of information and trend identification Help the exchange of information and trend identification

28 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Protection - Theft The recording of serial numbers and periodic audits can detect theft. Some companies have installed software that if a laptop is stolen, it will report its location when it connects to the Internet Screen capture provided by Absolute Software Corp

29 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Protection Software and hardware is being used to detect intrusions in real-time. Software and hardware is being used to detect intrusions in real-time. Software and hardware is used to prevent SPAM and attachments that might contain viruses. Software and hardware is used to prevent SPAM and attachments that might contain viruses. Education programs reduce hapless victimization Education programs reduce hapless victimization

30 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Explore Police Books written by Police BooksPolice Books law enforcement officials at law enforcement officials atwww.police-writers.com


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