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Sculpting, Carving, and Modeling © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Sculpting, Carving, and Modeling © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sculpting, Carving, and Modeling © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 16

2 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sculpting Sculpture is the art of producing an object, in three dimensions, that is a representation of natural or imagined forms –It has been a means of human expression since prehistoric times –Most Stone Age statuettes were made of ivory or soft stone –Some human and animal clay figures have been found

3 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sculpting Materials used from about 30,000 to 25,000 BC were basalt, diorite, sandstone, and alabaster Copper, gold, silver, shells, and a variety of precious stones were used for high quality sculpture inlays Clay was used for pottery and terracotta sculpture For more than 450 years, chefs and craftspeople have been producing edible sculpted displays from ice, snow, butter, tallow, bread, salt, fruits, and vegetables

4 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sculpting Historically, these works were performed for the pleasure of the noble and affluent

5 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Ice Sculpting Pure water freezes at 15ºF (-9.4 ºC) Contaminants, dust and debris, movement of water, and disturbance of water to some extent allow water to freeze at higher temperatures, normally about 32ºF Water is denser in its liquid form than solid form The actual molecular structure of the ice changes as it moves through various temperature zones

6 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Ice Sculpting This information is important to a sculptor because the block will react in changing ways when being cut at different temperatures The relative texture of the block will change from soft to hard, and back to soft again, with only a few degrees of temperature fluctuation

7 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Ice Sculpting There are 3 forms of commercially made ice used for sculpture and display: molded, brine tank, and circulating –Molded sculptures are formed in plastic or rubber molds that are filled with water and frozen, or directly in an ice mold machine filled with glycol –Pure chilled water is placed in galvanized containers that are partially submerged in a brine tank filled with sodium chloride makes brine tank ice, weighing 10 to 400 pounds

8 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Ice Sculpting –The circulating tank method creates clear blocks, weighing approximately 300 pounds, by suspending a small water pump near the top of the tank that gently moves the water around the tank

9 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Selecting the Ice Block Sculptors usually prefer clear ice. –It cuts well because of its density –The final product captures and refracts light more favorably

10 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Making and Harvesting the Ice Line ice block maker with a plastic liner Fill the liner with water Place a small pump into the water near the top After 2 to 3 days, the block will have formed Impurities will have been removed from the top of the block with a wet/dry vacuum

11 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Making and Harvesting the Ice A stainless lifter plate is frozen approximately ¼ inch into each end of the block for lifting from the chamber The block is then harvested using a portable block and tackle The tackle chains are attached to the lifter plates, so that the block can be lifted by one person

12 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Making and Harvesting the Ice The block is then lowered onto a tilt cart, and the plastic liner is removed If stored the block will be trimmed to 40×20×10 inches Once in the freezer, the block is stored upright and covered in plastic

13 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Holding the Ice Care in storage must be taken to prevent sublimation –Plastic bags under cardboard boxes work well to cover and insulate new ice blocks and prevent sublimation –It is better to store blocks on plastic, rubber, or Ethafoam sheets, or on other nonporous material, to make it easier to slice the blocks in and out of the freezer –The ice will keep for several months

14 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Equipment Traditional –Assorted chisels –Handsaws –Templates –Single-prong chipper/pick –Ice tongs –Multiprong chipper

15 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Equipment Modern –Chainsaw –Die grinder with covered spindle –Die grinder with normal shaft –Rotary tool –Course rubberizer –¼-inch straight router bit –V-shaped router bit

16 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Equipment Modern –Hand saw –Cordless drill –Aluminum –Drill with 5/8-inch spade bit –Ice tongs –Clothing iron –Extension cord with rubber casing –Heat gum

17 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Caring for Sculptor’s Tools Tools must be sharp, rust free, and in working order –Keep in orderly arrangement before, during, and after use –Inspect bits and blades of power tools before and after use

18 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cleaning Bits, Blades, and Chisels If rust is present, rub rust remover on the surface, then warm the bit, blade, or chisel with boiling water Wipe the item completely dry with a soft cloth Coat the metal item with a light film of oil Wrap each piece individually, or place in separate slots in a lined storage tray so that they will not damage each other

19 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Saw and Power Tools Oil regularly Inspect cords frequently for cuts, cracks, and exposed wires Sharpen the chain blades

20 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Tempering Ice for Sculpting Methods –Loading dock –Walk-in refrigerator Store block of ice in refrigerator overnight and allow it to warm slowly to just above the freezing point Cover the ice to prevent sublimation

21 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Sculptor’s Template Design Templates –Used for assisting the sculptor in defining the proportion and shape of a sculpture within a dimension or space –A very accurate way of transferring a design onto a block –Always used in ice competitions when accuracy and uniformity are crucial

22 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Sculptor’s Template Know the dimensions of the ice block Have a sketch of the design—a picture or drawing Use a projector to display the design onto tracing paper that has been taped to the wall The paper should be the same size as the block of ice The design is then traced onto the paper

23 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Sculptor’s Template To set the template –Squirt a few sprays of cold water onto the ice –Apply the template and immediately slide it into position –Square the paper evenly with the block of ice –Once the lines of the drawing have been etched into the ice (¼-inch deep), the paper can be removed

24 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. From Passive to Interactive Sculptures Interesting Uses –Punch bowls –Clam shells/shrimp boats –Two-dimensional (level) platters –Three-dimensional (tiered) platters –Tiered wedding cakes –Sorbet dishes –Luges and shooter blocks

25 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. From Passive to Interactive Sculptures Interesting Uses –Bars and fireplaces –Message boards –Computer screens –Pyrotechnic displays –Faux-flame displays –Lighted table centerpieces/serving pieces –Tourist hotels

26 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Vegetable and Fruit Carvings A specialty of Asian cultures for centuries Vegetables are served with all meals Vegetables have a wide range of colors and shapes and are a natural choice for garnishes In Thailand today, many study vegetable carving in art schools

27 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Vegetable and Fruit Carvings In Thailand, no meal is considered complete without some form of garnish Tools are different than for ice sculpting, but the process of analyzing the dimension of the design is similar Vegetables can be sculpted both additive and subtractive

28 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Vegetable and Fruit Carvings Uses –Holiday decorations –Vessels –Garnishes –Centerpieces

29 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Hand Tools for Vegetable Carving Razor blade Paring knife Flexible slicer Parisienne scoops Channel knife Daisy cutters Round and scalloped circle cutters Ruler

30 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Hand Tools for Vegetable Carving Wooden skewers/toothpicks Food coloring

31 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Dough Modeling Not commonly taught in culinary schools Displayed in international culinary competitions Most models are constructed by applying layers of edible dough on an armature The armature provides support for the structure and is inedible but hidden

32 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Salt Dough Modeling Is similar in appearance to stone sculpture An interesting blend of additive and subtractive sculpting Sculptures have an excellent shelf life Practical in a warm or cold climate

33 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Bread Dough Modeling Has roots in ancient cultures Is an additive form of sculpting Dough is edible, but lacks flavor and tenderness The edible dough is pliable and functional

34 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Fat Carvings Pastry margarine Butter Doughnut fryer shortening Tallow

35 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Fat Carvings Pastry Margarine and Butter –Began from an ancient Buddhist tradition –Not done in warmer climates, for obvious reasons –Sometimes is made up of a blend of margarine and shortening with butter to create a harder medium

36 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Fat Carvings Tallow –Chefs have used tallow for more than 300 years –Forms Sculpting Casting –Modern tallow softens to the consistency of artist’s clay It can be manipulated into any shape It can be trimmed with knives or tallow tools into any design

37 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Fat Carvings Casting Tallow –Extremely firm and cannot be softened by hand –Requires great effort to carve on a large scale –Is designed to be melted and poured into molds

38 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Styrofoam More popular in warmer climates Often used in large resort hotels, because of repeated use and storage ability Tools used include box cutters, heated wires, handsaws, razor blades, and knives After cutting, then Styrofoam is smoothed with sandpaper, then decorated with household paint or royal icing


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