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Building the Foundations of Australiawww.pilingcontractors.com.au 1 Presentation EXTREME COMPRESSION AND TENSION LOADS FOR THE SOUL TOWER, A 77 STOREY.

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Presentation on theme: "Building the Foundations of Australiawww.pilingcontractors.com.au 1 Presentation EXTREME COMPRESSION AND TENSION LOADS FOR THE SOUL TOWER, A 77 STOREY."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building the Foundations of Australiawww.pilingcontractors.com.au 1 Presentation EXTREME COMPRESSION AND TENSION LOADS FOR THE SOUL TOWER, A 77 STOREY APARTMENT BUILDING ON THE GOLD COAST 12th May 2010, 9.15 pm IQPC Piling & Deep Foundations Conference Melbourne Hotel Bayview Eden, Melbourne Speaker: Martin Larisch (Piling Contractors) Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast

2 2 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site location of Soul in Surfers Paradise, QLD

3 3 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Finished appearance in Surfers Paradise, QLD

4 4 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site location of the project in Surfers Paradise, QLD

5 5 77 storey apartment building with a retail area surrounding the main tower Third highest residential building in Australia (277m) Beach front location in the heart of Surfers Paradise Demolition works started in December 2007, proposed completion of the project mid of 2011 Main Contractor of the D&C project is Grocon Constructors (QLD) Pty Ltd Piling works awarded as D&C package to Piling Contractors Pty Ltd in December 2007 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Introduction: About the Soul Project

6 6 Developer employed McConnell Consulting in 2005 to carry out a soil investigation comprising 4 boreholes with SPTs and undisturbed sampling in soils and NMLC triple tube coring in rock Point load index tests on rock samples Classification tests on soil samples Noted that the concept was for a very tall structure with unusually deep basements Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Introduction: Early Site Investigation

7 7 Grocon employed Golder Associates in 2007 to review Site Investigation and make recommendations: Data from this site and two adjacent sites considered in new report Suggestion of ranges of UCS and Modulus Use of ROCKET to determine ranges of shaft friction Base resistance greater than available concrete strength Recommendation of additional drilling Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Introduction: Site Investigation used for pile design

8 8 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Introduction: Piling works Pile installation was carried out in four stages from January – Sept. 2008

9 9 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Pile layout plan - Pile installation Stage I CFA piles 01/2008 Stage II tower piles 03-08/2008 Stage III CFA piles 05-07/2008 Stage IV CFA piles 09/2008

10 10 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Tower piles Pile layout plan - Location of tower piles

11 11 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Bored piles for the main tower 44 large diameter bored piles (installed under bentonite) for the main tower pile cut off levels 9m & 14m below working platform plunged steel columns required for 21 piles pile Ø 1500mm, 1800mm and 2200mm drilling depths up to 45m

12 12 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast 1800mm 1500mm Pile Layout Plan - Pile diameters tower piles 2200mm column

13 13 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Site location of Soul in Surfers Paradise, QLD

14 14 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Assumed soil profile Typical site conditions detailed in the chart below: ELEVATIONBRIEF DESCRIPTION +5m to -1.5mFill (loose silty sand and clayey sand) -1.5m to -21m Sand (dense to very dense with some sandy clay lenses) -21m to -33m Sandy clay and clayey sand (ranging from stiff to medium dense) -33m to -36mGreenstone / Argillite (very weak) -36m to -48mArgillite (Neranleigh - Fernvale Group) -48m to -60m Argillite (Neranleigh - Fernvale Group) but RQD > 70% (assumed) below -60mMassive Argillite (assumed)

15 15 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Further Site Investigation by Grocon / Golder One additional borehole drilled to 42m depth (-44.5m AHD) Results confirmed previous investigation Pile bases had to be very clean to mobilise end bearing 100% requiring a comprehensive cleaning system and SID Some base debris, requiring sweep airlift and purpose built cleaning buckets; bentonite with <2% sand content Shaft friction only, requiring conditioning of drilling fluid and cleaning bucket

16 16 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Assumed soil profile

17 17 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Summary point load tests

18 18 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Design parameters Point load tests from two independent soil investigation reports indicate high strength to very high strength Argillite in the target founding zone for pile toe levels Piles to be designed with rock sockets of at least one pile diameter into high strength Argillite or better (UCS between MPa) Piles with high tension loads to be designed and constructed with longer rock sockets of 3.5m

19 19 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - The following parameters were recommended:

20 20 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Geology - Geotechnical design by Piling Contractors Piling Contractors appointed PSM to carry out geotechnical design review Examined soil profile Carried out FE modelling Minor modifications to socket length suggested and accepted by MJ Civil Looking at settlement and differential settlement, and at tension capacities

21 21 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Building loads for the Soul tower Vertical compression load of building (MN) Vertical tension load (MN) Lateral load (MN) DL + 40% LLServiceabilityUltimate Ultimate 213 Ultimate 65.5

22 22 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Pile loads (ULS) for the tower piles 1500mm piles18-32MN in compression,average 24-26MN 0-3MN in tension 1800mm piles30-51MN in compression,average 38-44MN 0-5MN in tension 2200mm piles37-90MN in compression,average 50-60MN MN in tension Pile P11 (Ø2200mm) with ULS load of 90MN in compression Pile P14 (Ø2200mm) with ULS load of 18.6MN in tension

23 23 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Pile loads (ULS) for the tower piles

24 24 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Major technical challenges of the project Tower piles with very high compression and tension loads - ULS pile loads upto 90MN (compression) and 18.6MN (tension) per pile Requirements for elimination of structural concrete cracking under tension loads → Minimum characteristic concrete principal tensile strength (f’ ct ) shall be 0.4√ f c ’ Pile installation within tolerances is imperative Installation of plunged columns in tension piles Pile cut off levels located 9m and 14m below working platform

25 25 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Options for compression loads Driven piles Not suitable for the intensity of loading Raft foundation (stiffened raft/slab or piled raft) Considered by McConnell Consulting for basement/podium foundations CFA piles Used for podium foundations Bored piles socketed into rock Used for tower foundations

26 26 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Options for tensile loads Driven piles Not suitable for the magnitude of loading, joints etc Raft foundation (stiffened raft/slab or piled raft) Not suitable for uplift in excess of dead weight CFA piles Problems with full length reinforcement Bored piles socketed into rock Used for tower foundations

27 27 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Pile Design - Piling works as D&C contract Piling Contractors first tender proposal Pile diameterQuantity 1200mm2 1500mm mm mm mm3 Pile diameterQuantity 1500mm7 1800mm mm19 Revised and optimized proposal

28 28 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Why was the reduction of 3000mm to 2200mm piles important? 3000mm piles with 86% more volume (influences drilling rates, cleaning of drilling fluid, storage capacities, steel and concrete quantities) 3000mm piles with 36% deeper rock sockets

29 29 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast How can the tension capacity of bored piles be improved? → Use of high strength concrete (f c ’ > 85MPa) for the pile shaft providing additional tensile capacity Workability criteria several 1500mm and 1800mm piles were installed and poured successfully with the 65MPa mix (no blockages) slump of 260mm, spread 600mm workability for 8-10 hours to ensure contingency delivery and supply of concrete without delays no concrete bleeding or segregation observed concrete strength achieved

30 30 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Use of high strength concrete Plunged column installation site trial with a test column in a 1500mm pile to verify minimum plunged depth of 10m into concrete

31 31 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Use of high strength concrete Plunged column installation

32 32 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Concrete Design Requirements Design criteria according to minimum characteristic concrete principal tensile strength (f’ ct ) > 0.4√f c ’ and maximum tension loads (ULS) of 19MN for a pile diameter of 2200mm (cross section of 3.80m 2 )→ f’ ct > 5MPa Previous experience suggested that the tensile strength of concrete is about 5-8% of the compressive strength → f c ’ ~ MPa Concrete supplier tested 6 samples from an earlier project where a 70MPa mix achieved MPa compressive strength after 56 days → f’ ct > 6-7MPa Preparation of a 85MPa concrete mix to target MPa

33 33 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Trial with three mixes Minimum compressive strength of 85MPa Minimum tensile strength of 5MPa Workability of 8-10 hours All mixes designed not to absorb / release water from / to environment Proposed trial mixes for the 85MPa mix Three different trial mixes: S851FLL based on workability criteria of 65MPA mix S851FLLFib with added synthetic fibres (extra tension capacity) S851FLLretrial with reduced hydration stabilizing admixture

34 34 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Concrete workability criteria Testing if the mix is homogeneous

35 35 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Concrete workability criteria trial mixes - S851FLL Fib

36 36 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Concrete workability criteria trial mixes - spread test S851FLL Fib

37 37 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Concrete workability criteria trial mixes

38 38 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Indirect Tensile Strength Test AS (Splitting Test) Taking a sample on site Put sample into test jig under hydraulic cylinder

39 39 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Indirect Tensile Strength Test AS (Splitting Test) Different test set up Sample in test frame

40 40 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Indirect Tensile Strength Test AS (Splitting Test) Stress distribution Cracked samples inside a sample showing typical failure mode

41 41 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Results 5 MPa

42 42 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Trial Test workability on site on a compression pile (1500mm) 1500mm pile with a plunged column test installation

43 43 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Trial Excellent workability criteria for SF851FLL Plunged column installation up to 10m into concrete (suspend column)

44 44 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Trial Workability criteria for SF851FLL Fib critical Fibres might get caught on reinforcement cage or plunged column shear studs

45 45 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Site Trial - Summary : Successful site trial Risk that fibers get caught on reinforcement cage or plunged columns considered as too high, fibres reduced workability of the mix Workability criteria of SF851FLL excellent Early tensile strength of SF851FLL > 5MPa after 7 days Early compression strength of SF851FLL > 80MPa after 7 days…

46 1500mm 2200mm 1800mm 46 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast f’c>85MPa Overview of all piles with high strength concrete (f c ’>85MPa) column

47 47 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Tensile Test Results 76 tensile strength results were taken for the whole project: 3 tensile and 3 compressive samples for every 50m 3 of 85MPa concrete 2 early strength tests after 2 days:f’ ct = 5.2 – 5.4MPa 23 early strength tests after 7 days:f’ ct = 4.3 – 6.4MPa 8 strength tests after 28 days: f’ ct = 6.6 – 7.5MPa 43 strength tests after 56 days: f’ ct = 6.6 – 8.5MPa

48 48 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Summary Tensile Strength Results test results after 56 days test results after 7 days test results after 28 days Minimum tensile strength requirement of 5MPa after 28 days

49 49 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Quality Control – Concrete Displacement Records theoretical volume actual volume

50 50 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Pile Layout Plan – Integrity Tests 1500mm 2200mm 1800mm low strain cross hole

51 51 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Quality Control - Cross Hole Sonic Logging

52 52 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Quality Control - Cross Hole Sonic Logging

53 53 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Quality Control – Low strain integrity tests (PIT) Low strain integrity tests (PIT) to be carried on several piles randomly

54 54 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Lessons Learned Constant maintenance of drill tools due to high strength rock…

55 55 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Lessons Learned Working under limited access (1/2)

56 56 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Lessons Learned Working under limited access (2/2)

57 57 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Lessons Learned Special challenges when working in Surfers Paradise……

58 58 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Future Outlook: : Drilling Technology: Bauer BG28 used for the SOUL project machine worked on upper limit stronger Bauer BG40 rig now available 390kNm torque (+42%) 300kN winch capacity (+20%) 140T operational weight (+48%) 433kW engine power (+22%) pile Ø3000mm possible BG28 SOUL BG40

59 59 Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast Conclusion : Use of high strength concrete f c ’>85MPa can be used successfully for bored piles if: concrete mix is designed & tested for project specific circumstances concrete supply and delivery without delays highly experienced site crew and concrete supplier innovative and cooperative client who is open for new ideas

60 Building the Foundations of Australiawww.pilingcontractors.com.au Adelaide Brisbane Sydney Perth 60 Melbourne THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Extreme Compression & Tension Loads for the Souls Tower on the Gold Coast


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