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Early Earth …earliest phase of Earth heating… …near Moon… …first seas… …thin atmosphere of H, CO 2, H 2 O, N 2, CO, NH 3, CH 4 …early bombardment…

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Presentation on theme: "Early Earth …earliest phase of Earth heating… …near Moon… …first seas… …thin atmosphere of H, CO 2, H 2 O, N 2, CO, NH 3, CH 4 …early bombardment…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Earth …earliest phase of Earth heating… …near Moon… …first seas… …thin atmosphere of H, CO 2, H 2 O, N 2, CO, NH 3, CH 4 …early bombardment…

2 Early Bombardment 2 phases? Relative dating

3 Early Earth began to heat as the last extraterrestrial collisions subsided 1.Rock is a good insulator – stores heat 2.Collisions produced heat that was stored 3.Radioactivity 4.Gravitational contraction Early in Earth History the Planet Developed a Magma Sea billion years ago What is the physical consequence of melting a homogeneous ball of rock?

4 Temperature reached melting point of iron: Liquid iron flowed inward Friction raised temperature Liquid Silicon and Oxygen flowed outward (Ca/Na/Al/K) “Iron Catastrophe” Planet became chemically differentiated

5 Lower lithosphere - Fe/Mg Crust – Si/O/Fe/Mg/Ca/Na/K/Al Oceanic crust – Fe/Mg/Ca Continental crust – Si/O/Na Inner core – Fe/Ni solid Inner core – Fe/Ni solid Outer core – Fe/Ni/Mg liquid Outer core – Fe/Ni/Mg liquid Mantle – Fe/Mg solid rock capable of flow Lithosphere – Fe/Mg/Si/O Increasing Fe/Mg toward core Increasing Si/O toward crust

6 Effect of chemical differentiation

7 Earth’s magnetic field emanates from the core complex and surrounds the planet. Magnetism gained from early nebula is magnified by turbulent iron, nickel fluid of outer core. Magnetic field envelops entire planet Polarity + - tends to reverse and fluctuate with time

8 The “Bow Shock Effect”

9 How does convection work? Another consequence of differentiation is convection. How will the lithosphere respond to a plume?

10 The continental rifting process

11 Mid-Ocean Ridge Spreading Center But if you keep making crust the Earth must be expanding! Right?

12 Spreading center and subduction zone

13 Global Tectonics Partial Melting Partial melting is responsible for evolving mantle rock… among other things this gives us continents.

14 Oceanic lithosphere – general chemistry is Fe, Mg, Ca, Si, O in the form of a rock “Basalt” Continental lithosphere – general chemistry is Si, O, Al, Na, K…in the form of a rock “Granite”

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16 Plate Movement “Ridge Push” “Slab Pull” “Plate Drag”

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18 Main Types of Plate Motion Convergent Divergent Transform

19 Five types of plate boundaries DivergentTransformConvergent Ocean-OceanOcean-Ocean Ocean-ContinentOcean-Continent Continent-ContinentContinent-Continent

20 Five types of plate boundaries DivergentTransformConvergent Ocean-OceanOcean-Ocean Ocean-ContinentOcean-Continent Continent-ContinentContinent-Continent

21 Divergent Boundary

22 Convergent Boundary

23 Transform Boundary

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25 Modern Earth Pangea 240 million

26 Origin of India

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28 Hot Spot

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30 Paleomagnetism

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32 Igneous Rocks

33 Sedimentary Rocks

34 Metamorphic Rocks

35 The Rock Cycle

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