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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Visual Concepts Resources Standardized Test Prep Brain Food Video Quiz

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Table of Contents Section 1 Continental Drift Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Section 3 The Changing Continents

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Continental Drift Chapter 10 Objectives Summarize Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift. Describe the process of sea-floor spreading. Identify how paleomagnetism provides support for the idea of sea-floor spreading. Explain how sea-floor spreading provides a mechanism for continental drift.

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener’s Hypothesis Continental drift the hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present location The hypothesis of continental drift was first proposed by German scientist Alfred Wegener in Wegener used several different types of evidence to support his hypothesis Section 1 Continental Drift

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener’s Hypothesis, continued Wegener’s Evidence Fossil Evidence: fossils of the same plants and animals could be found in areas of continents that had once been connected. Evidence from Rock Formations: ages and types of rocks in the coastal regions of widely separated areas matched closely. Climatic Evidence: changes in climatic patterns suggested the continents had not always been located where they are now. Section 1 Continental Drift

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener’s Hypothesis, continued Similar rock formations and fossil evidence supported Wegener’s hypothesis. Section 1 Continental Drift

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener’s Hypothesis, continued Missing Mechanisms Wegener proposed that the continents moved by plowing through the rock of the ocean floor. Wegener’s ideas were strongly opposed. Wegener’s mechanism was disproved by geologic evidence. Wegener spent the rest of his life searching for a mechanism for the movement of continents. Section 1 Continental Drift

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener’s Hypothesis, continued Reading Check Why did many scientists reject Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift? Section 1 Continental Drift

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener’s Hypothesis, continued Reading Check Answer Why did many scientists reject Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift? Many scientists rejected Wegener’s hypothesis because the mechanism that Wegener suggested was easily disproved by geologic evidence. Section 1 Continental Drift

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Mid-Ocean Ridges Mid-ocean ridge a long, undersea mountain chain that has a steep, narrow valley at its center, that forms as magma rises from the asthenosphere, and that creates new oceanic lithosphere (sea floor) as tectonic plates move apart Section 1 Continental Drift

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Mid-Ocean Ridges, continued In 1947, a group of scientists set out to map the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. While studying the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, scientists noticed two surprising trends. 1.The sediment that covers the sea floor is thinner closer to a ridge than it is farther from the ridge 2.The ocean floor is very young. Rocks on land are as old as 3.8 billion years. None of the oceanic rocks are more than 175 million years old. Section 1 Continental Drift

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Mid-Ocean Ridges, continued Rocks closer to a mid-ocean ridge are younger than rocks farther from the ridge. Rocks closer to the ridge are covered with less sediment than rocks farther from the ridge. Section 1 Continental Drift

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading Sea-floor spreading the process by which new oceanic lithosphere (sea floor) forms as magma rises to Earth’s surface and solidifies at a mid-ocean ridge Paleomagnetism the study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock, specifically as it relates to the reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock acquires during formation Section 1 Continental Drift

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued In the late 1950’s geologist Harry Hess proposed that the valley at the center of the mid-ocean ridge was a crack, or rift, in Earth’s crust. As the ocean floor moves away from the ridge, molten rock, or magma, rises to fill the crack. Hess suggested that if the sea floor is moving, the continents might be moving also. He suggested this might be the mechanism that Wegener was searching for. Section 1 Continental Drift

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued As the ocean floor spreads apart, magma rises to fill the rift and then cools to form new rock. Section 1 Continental Drift

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued Section 1 Continental Drift

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued Section 1 Continental Drift

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued Reading Check How does new sea floor form? Section 1 Continental Drift

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued Reading Check Answer How does new sea floor form? New sea floor forms as magma rises to fill the rift that forms when the ocean floor moves away from a mid- ocean ridge. Section 1 Continental Drift

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism Paleomagnetism the study of the alignment of magnetic minerals in rock, specifically as it relates to the reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles; also the magnetic properties that rock acquires during formation As magma solidifies to form rock, iron-rich minerals in the magma align with Earth’s magnetic field. When the rock hardens, the magnetic orientation of the minerals becomes permanent. Section 1 Continental Drift

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism, continued Magnetic Reversals Scientists have discovered rocks whose magnetic orientations point opposite of Earth’s current magnetic field. Rocks with magnetic fields that point north (normal polarity) are all classified in the same time periods. Rocks with magnetic fields that point south (reversed polarity) also all fell into specific time periods Section 1 Continental Drift

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism, continued Magnetic Reversals When scientists placed these periods of normal and reversed polarity in chronological order, they discovered a pattern of alternating normal and reversed polarity in the rocks. Scientists used this pattern to create the geomagnetic reversal time scale. Section 1 Continental Drift

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism, continued Magnetic Symmetry Scientists discovered a striped magnetic pattern on the ocean floor on each side of a mid-ocean ridge. The pattern on one side of the ridge is a mirror image of the pattern on the other side. When drawn on a map, these patterns match the geomagnetic reversal time scale. Section 1 Continental Drift

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism, continued Magnetic Symmetry The pattern of magnetic symmetry and age of rock formation indicate that new rock forms at the center of a ridge and then move away from the center in opposite directions. Section 1 Continental Drift

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism, continued Reading Check How are magnetic patterns in sea-floor rock evidence of sea-floor spreading? Section 1 Continental Drift

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Paleomagnetism, continued Reading Check Answer How are magnetic patterns in sea-floor rock evidence of sea-floor spreading? The symmetrical magnetic patterns in sea-floor rocks show that rocks formed at one place (at a ridge) and then broke apart and moved away from the center in opposite directions. Section 1 Continental Drift

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Wegener Redeemed Reversal patterns on the sea floor could also be found on land. The reversals in land rocks also matched the geomagnetic reversal time scale. Because the same pattern appears in rocks of the same ages on both land and the sea floor, scientists agreed that the magnetic patterns showed change over time. The idea of sea-floor spreading provides a way for the continents to move over the Earth’s surface. Sea-floor spreading was the mechanism that verified Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift. Section 1 Continental Drift

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Continental Drift (Pangaea) Section 1 Continental Drift

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Objectives Summarize the theory of plate tectonics. Identify and describe the three types of plate boundaries. List and describe three causes of plate movement.

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 How Continents Move plate tectonics the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithospehere, called plates, move and change shape lithosphere the solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle asthenosphere the solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 How Continents Move, continued The lithosphere forms the thin outer shell of Earth and is broken into several blocks or tectonic plates. The tectonic plates ride on the asthenoshpere in much the same way that blocks of wood float on water. Tectonic plates can include continental crust, oceanic crust, or both. Continents and oceans are carried along on the moving tectonic plates in the same way that passengers are carried by a bus.

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Tectonic Plates Scientists have identified about 15 major tectonic plates. Scientists identify plate boundaries primarily by studying data from earthquakes. The locations of volcanoes can also help identify the locations of plate boundaries.

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Tectonic Plates, continued The boundaries of tectonic plates do not always match the outlines of continents.

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Tectonic Plates, continued Reading Check How do scientists identify locations of plate boundaries? Chapter 10 Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Tectonic Plates, continued Reading Check Answer How do scientists identify locations of plate boundaries? Scientists use the locations of earthquakes, volcanoes, trenches, and mid-ocean ridges to outline tectonic plates. Chapter 10 Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Types of Plate Boundaries Tectonic plate boundaries may be in the middle of the ocean floor, around the edges of continents, or even within continents. The three types of plate boundaries are divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries, and transform boundaries. Each plate boundary is associated with a characteristic type of geologic activity.

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Types of Plate Boundaries, continued insert TT

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Types of Plate Boundaries, continued insert TT

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Types of Plate Boundaries, continued insert TT

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Causes of Plate Motion Many scientists think that the movement of tectonic plates is partly due to convection. Convection is the movement of heated material due to differences in density that are caused by differences in temperatures.

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Causes of Plate Motion, continued The convection process can be modeled by boiling water in a pot on the stove. As the water at the bottom of the pot is heated, the water at the bottom expands and becomes less dense than the cooler water above it. The cooler, denser water sinks, and the warmer water rises to the surface to create a cycle called a convection cell.

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Causes of Plate Motion, continued Mantle Convection Scientists think that tectonic plates are part of a convection system. Energy generated by Earth’s core and radioactivity within the mantle heat the mantle. This heated material rises through the cooler, denser material around it.

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Causes of Plate Motion, continued Mantle Convection As the hot material rises, the cooler, denser material flows away from the hot material and sinks into the mantle to replace the rising material. As the mantle material moves, it drags the overlying tectonic plates along with it.

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Causes of Plate Motion, continued Insert TT

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Chapter 10 Causes of Plate Motion, continued Insert TT

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Section 2 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 Objectives Identify how movements of tectonic plates change Earth’s surface. Summarize how movements of tectonic plates have influenced climates and life on Earth. Describe the supercontinent cycle.

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 Reshaping Earth’s Crust rifting the process by which Earth’s crust breaks apart; can occur within continental crust or oceanic crust Slow movements of tectonic plates change the size and shape of the continents over millions of years. All of the continents that exist today contain large areas of stable rock, called cratons, that are older than 540 million years. Rocks within the cratons that have been exposed at Earth’s surface are called shields. One way that continents change shape is by breaking apart. Rifting is the process by which a continent breaks apart.

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 Reshaping Earth’s Crust, continued terrane a piece of lithosphere that has a unique geologic history and that may be part of a larger piece of lithosphere, such as a continent Continents change not only by breaking apart but also by gaining material. Most continents consist of cratons surrounded by a patchwork of terranes. Terranes become part of a continent at convergent boundaries. When a tectonic plate carrying a terrane subducts under a plate made of continental lithosphere, the terrane is scraped off of the subducting plate and becomes part of the continent.

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reshaping Earth’s Crust, continued Reading Check Describe the process of accretion. Chapter 10 Section 3 The Changing Continents

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Reshaping Earth’s Crust, continued Reading Check Answer Describe the process of accretion. As a plate subducts beneath another plate, islands and other land features on the subducting plate are scraped off the subducting plate and become part of the overriding plate. Section 3 The Changing Continents

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 Effects of Continental Change Modern climates are a result of past movements of tectonic plates. When continents move, the flow of air and moisture around the globe changes and causes climates to change. Geologic evidence shows that ice once covered most of Earth’s continental surfaces. As continents began to drift around the globe, however, global temperatures changed and much of the ice sheet melted. As continents rift or as mountains form, populations of organisms are separated. When populations are separated, new species may evolve from existing species.

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle supercontinent cycle the process by which supercontinents form and break apart over millions of years Pangaea the supercontinent that formed 300 million years ago and that began to break up beginning 250 million years ago Panthalassa the single, large ocean that covered Earth’s surface during the time the supercontinent Pangaea existed

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued Using evidence from many scientific fields, scientists can construct a general picture of continental change throughout time. Several times in the past, the continents were arranged into large landmasses called supercontinents. Supercontinents broke apart to form smaller continents that moved around the globe. Eventually, the smaller continents joined again to form another supercontinent. The process by which supercontinents form and break apart over time is called the supercontinent cycle.

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued The movement of plates toward convergent boundaries causes continents to collide. Because neither continent subducts beneath the other, the plate boundary becomes inactive, and a new convergent boundary forms. Over time, all of the continents collide to form a supercontinent. Then, heat from Earth’s interior builds up under the supercontinent, and rifts form in the supercontinent. The supercontinent breaks apart, and plates carrying separate continents move around the globe.

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued Formation of Pangaea The supercontinent Pangaea formed about 300 million years ago. Several mountain ranges, such as the Appalachian Mountains and the Ural Mountains formed during the collisions that created Pangaea. A body of water called the Tethys Sea cut into the eastern edge of Pangaea. The single, large ocean that surrounded Pangaea was called Panthalassa.

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued Breakup of Pangaea About 250 million years ago (during the Paleozoic Era), Pangaea began to break into two continents— Laurasia and Gondwanaland. Laurasia became the continents of North America and Eurasia. Gondwanaland became the continents of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica.

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued The Modern Continents Slowly, the continents moved into their present positions. As the continents drifted, they collided with terranes and other continents. New mountain ranges, such as the Rocky Mountains, the Andes, and the Alps, formed. Tectonic plate motion also caused new oceans to open up and caused others to close.

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued Reading Check What modern continents formed from Gondwanaland?

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued Reading Check Answer What modern continents formed from Gondwanaland? The continents Africa, South America, Antarctica, and Australia formed from Gondwanaland. The subcontinent of India was also part of Gondwanaland.

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Changing Continents Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle, continued Geography of the Future As tectonic plates continue to move, Earth’s geography will change dramatically. Scientists predict that in 250 million years, the continents will come together again to form a new supercontinent.

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Maps in Action Chapter 10 Maps in Action Locations of Earthquakes in South America, 2002–2003

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Movements of the Ocean Brain Food Video Quiz Chapter 10

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1.Which of the following factors is most important when determining the type of collision that forms when two lithospheric plates collide? A. the density of each plate B. the size of each plate C. the paleomagnetism of the rock D. the length of the boundary Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which of the following factors is most important when determining the type of collision that forms when two lithospheric plates collide? A. the density of each plate B. the size of each plate C. the paleomagnetism of the rock D. the length of the boundary Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. At locations where sea-floor occurs, rock is moved away from a mid-ocean ridge. What replaces the rock as it moves away? F. molten rock G. older rock H. continental crust I. compacted sediment Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. At locations where sea-floor occurs, rock is moved away from a mid-ocean ridge. What replaces the rock as it moves away? F. molten rock G. older rock H. continental crust I. compacted sediment Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following was a weakness of Wegener’s proposal of continental drift when he first proposed the hypothesis? A. an absence of fossil evidence B. unsupported climatic evidence C. unrelated continent features D. a lack of proven mechanisms Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following was a weakness of Wegener’s proposal of continental drift when he first proposed the hypothesis? A. an absence of fossil evidence B. unsupported climatic evidence C. unrelated continent features D. a lack of proven mechanisms Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following statements describes a specific type of continental growth? F. Continents change not only by gaining material but also by losing material. G. Terranes become part of a continent at convergent boundaries. H. Ocean sediments move onto land because of sea-floor spreading. I. Rifting adds new rock to a continent and causes the continent to become wider. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following statements describes a specific type of continental growth? F. Continents change not only by gaining material but also by losing material. G. Terranes become part of a continent at convergent boundaries. H. Ocean sediments move onto land because of sea-floor spreading. I. Rifting adds new rock to a continent and causes the continent to become wider. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response 5. What is the name for the process by which the Earth’s crust breaks apart? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 5. What is the name for the process by which the Earth’s crust breaks apart? rifting Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 6. What is the name for the layer of plastic rock directly below the lithosphere? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued 6. What is the name for the layer of plastic rock directly below the lithosphere? the asthenosphere Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills Read the passage below. Then, answer questions 7–9. The Himalaya Mountains The Himalaya Mountains are a range of mountains that is 2,400 km long and that arcs across Pakistan, India, Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. The Himalaya Mountains are the highest mountains on Earth. Nine mountains in the chain, including Mount Everest, the tallest above-water mountain on Earth, rise to heights of more than 8,000 m above sea-level. Mount Everest stands 8,850 m tall. The formation of the Himalaya Mountains began about 80 million years ago. A tectonic plate carrying the Indian subcontinent collided with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate was denser than the Eurasian plate. This difference in density caused the uplifting of the Eurasian plate and the subsequent formation of the Himalaya Mountains. This process continues today. The Indian plate continues to push under the Eurasian plate. New measurements show that Mount Everest is moving to the northeast by as much as 10 cm per year. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

82 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 7. According to the passage, what geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains? A. divergence B. continental drift C. strike-slip faulting D. convergence Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

83 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 7. According to the passage, what geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains? A. divergence B. continental drift C. strike-slip faulting D. convergence Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

84 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 8. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? F. The nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains. G. The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain chain on Earth. H. The Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries. I. The Himalaya Mountains had completely formed by 80 million years ago. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

85 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 8. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? F. The nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains. G. The Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain chain on Earth. H. The Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries. I. The Himalaya Mountains had completely formed by 80 million years ago. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

86 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 9. Which plate is being subducted along the fault that formed the Himalaya Mountains? A. The Indian plate is being subducted. B. The Eurasian plate is being subducted. C. Both plates are being equally subducted. D. Neither plate is being subducted. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

87 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Skills, continued 9. Which plate is being subducted along the fault that formed the Himalaya Mountains? A. The Indian plate is being subducted. B. The Eurasian plate is being subducted. C. Both plates are being equally subducted. D. Neither plate is being subducted. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

88 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics Use the map below to answer questions 10 and 11. The map shows the locations of the Earth’s major tectonic plate boundaries. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

89 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 10. What type of boundary is found between the South American plate and the African Plate? A. convergent B. divergent C. transform D. subduction Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

90 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 10. What type of boundary is found between the South American plate and the African Plate? A. convergent B. divergent C. transform D. subduction Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

91 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 11. What type of boundary is found between the South American plate and the African plate? What surface features are most often at boundaries of this type? Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

92 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 11. What type of boundary is found between the South American plate and the African plate? What surface features are most often at boundaries of this type? Answers should include: the boundary between the South American plate and the African plate is a divergent boundary; most divergent boundaries are located on the ocean floor and produce mid-ocean ridges and underwater mountain ranges Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

93 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued Use the graphic below to answer questions 12 and 13. The graphic shows a strike-slip fault along a transform boundary. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

94 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 12. What type of crustal interaction is indicated by the letter E? F. continental rifting G. sea-floor spreading H. divergence I. subduction Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

95 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 12. What type of crustal interaction is indicated by the letter E? F. continental rifting G. sea-floor spreading H. divergence I. subduction Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

96 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 13. Describe how a transform boundary differs from the boundaries shown by letters D and E in terms of plate movement and magmatic activity. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

97 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics, continued 13. Describe how a transform boundary differs from the boundaries shown by letters D and E in terms of plate movement and magmatic activity. Answers should include: unlike the plates at a convergent boundary, shown by letter E, or divergent boundary, shown by letter D, plates at a transform boundary move past one another, not into or away from one another; transform boundaries produce a number of earthquakes, but they do not produce magma or cause mountain formation Standardized Test Prep Chapter 10

98 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Sea-Floor Spreading

99 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Tectonic Plates

100 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Types of Plate Boundaries

101 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Ridge Push and Slab Pull

102 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 The Supercontinent Cycle

103 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 10 Locations of Earthquakes in South America,


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