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1 Connections Design for Fire Safety Cardington Structural Integrity Fire Test This project has been carried out with the support of the European Community.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Connections Design for Fire Safety Cardington Structural Integrity Fire Test This project has been carried out with the support of the European Community."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Connections Design for Fire Safety Cardington Structural Integrity Fire Test This project has been carried out with the support of the European Community project Continuing Education in Structural Connections under Leonardo da Vinci Programme.

2 2 Contents  Structural Connections at Fire  Distribution of temperature  Thermal properties  Component method  Structural Integrity Test in Cardington Laboratory  Preparation  Experiment  Major results  Conclusion

3 3 Three Stages of Fire Design  Resistance to collapse R (t) in min.

4 4 Temperature Influence on Structure  Degradation of material properties  Elongation/shortening of elements Connections at Fire  Exposed to diferent forces compare to room temperature  In colder areas  Colder compare to elements due to the concentration of mass Structural Connections at Fire

5 5 Example based on prediction according to prEN Distribution of Temperature in Connection

6 6 Thermal Properties of Connectors Accordig to Annex to prEN

7 7 Discretisation into components Component Method for Connections at High Temperature

8 8 Resistance at high temperature Stiffness at high temperature Prediction based on room temperature calculacions. Component Behaviour at High Temperature

9 9 Resistance at high temperature Stiffness at high temperature Prediction based on room temperature calculacions. Connection Behaviour at High Temperature

10 10 Example of Prediction at High Temperature

11 11 Cardington Hangar on Postcard, 1925

12 12 Experimental area 48 m x 65 m x 250 m

13 13 Timber Structure - 6 Floors

14 14 Concrete Structure - 7 Floors

15 15 Steel Composite Structure – 8 Floors Structure finished 1994, plan area 945 m 2

16 16 Beam-column connections - header plates Beam-beam connections - fin plates Typical composite structure

17 17 Large Scale Fire Experiments on Steel Frame

18 18 Test Observed Fire compartmentLoading size, marea, m 2 FireMech. G + % Q 1One beam heated by gas8 x 324Gas30% 2One frame heated by gas 21 x 2,5 53Gas30% 3Corner compartments10 x kgm -2 30% 4Corner compartment9 x kgm -2 30% 5Large compartment21 x kgm -2 30% 6Office – Demonstration18 x kgm -2 30% 7Structural integrity11 x kgm -2 56% Major Observations, Compartment, and Loading

19 19 TestOrg.LevelTime, minTemp., °CDeformation, mm to max. temp.gassteelmaximalresidual 1BS BS BS BRE BRE BS ČVUT ~ Duration, Temperatures, and Deformations

20 20 Column shortening, Test 2 – BS, 1996

21 21 Cardington Fire Test January European Fifth Framework Project HPRI – CV 5535 TENSILE MEMBRANE ACTION AND ROBUSTNESS OF STRUCTURAL STEEL JOINTS UNDER NATURAL FIRE Objectives  Temperatures in elements and joints  Internal forces in the connections  Behaviour of the composite slab

22 22 Fire Compartment Wall three layers of gypsum plasterboard (15 mm + 12,5 mm + 15 mm), with K = 0,19 – 0,24 W/m°K Window 9 m x 1,27 m

23 23 Columns External joints 1 m of the primary beam by 15 mm of Cafco300 vermiculite-cement spray (K = 0,078 W/m°K) Protected Members

24 24  148 thermocouples  57 low temperature strain gauges  10 high temperature strain gauges Instrumentation

25 25 Deformation  37 deformations

26 26 Cameras  10 video cameras  2 thermo cameras

27 27  Permanent 100%  Variable permanent 100%  Live 56% by sand bags Mechanical Load

28 28 Fire Load Timber cribs 50 x 50 mm - fire load 40 kg/m 2 Fire Load

29 29 Experiment January 16, 2003

30 30 Deformation of Composite Slab Residual deformation 925 mm (during fire from video cameras reading about 1200 mm )

31 31 Cracking of Concrete Slab

32 32 400,0°C 980,0°C Heating and Cooling of Structure

33 33 Gas 1108 °C in 55 min. (predicted 1078 °C in 53 min.) Gas Temperatures

34 34 Beam 1088 °C in 57min. (predicted 1067 °C in 54 min.) Beam Temperatures

35 35 Fin Plate Temperature Profile

36 36 Header Plate Temperature Profile

37 37 Compartment after Fire Residual deformation 925 mm.

38 38 Local Buckling of Beam Lower Flanges

39 39 Deformation Capacity of Fin Plate Connection by Bearing of Plate

40 40 Fracture of One Side of Leader Plate Connection

41 41 Header Plate Strain Gagues

42 42 Column Flange Buckling

43 43  Collapse of structure not reached  Fire load 40 kg/m 2  Mechanical load 56%  Good structural integrity of composite slab aproved  Concept of unprotected beams and protected columns aproved Conclusions of Test

44 44  Local buckling of lower flanges during heating  Fracture of end plates without lost of bearing capacity  Elongation of holes in fin plates Connection Behaviour

45 45  Exposed to diferent forces compare to room temperature Important its robustnost  In colder areas and due to the concentration of mass colder compare to elements No need of special check or of special thermal isulation  For connections exposed to fire Component method gives a good prediction of behaviour Structural Connections at Fire

46 46 The End This lesson has been produced with the support of the European Community project Continuing Education in Structural Connections - CESTRUCO under Leonardo da Vinci Programme.

47 47 of project CV 5535 of European Fifth Framework Programme Tensile membrane action and robustness of structural steel joints under natural fire Test January Participating Institutions Building Research Establishment Czech Technical University in Prague Coimbra University Technical University, Bratislava Experiment

48 48 Project Team Mr. Martin BenešResearch Student, CTU Prague Mr. Luis BorgesResearch Student, University of Coimbra Prof. Ian Burges Research Group Member, University of Sheffield Mr. Dalibor GregorResearch Student, CTU Prague Mrs. Petra HřebíkováResearch Student, CTU Prague Mrs. Magdaléna ChladnáResearch Student, Slovak Technical University, Bratislava Mr. Derek Jennings Engineering Technician, BRE Watford Mr. Tom Lennon Supervising Engineer, BRE Watford Mr. Ewan Macdonald Technician, BRE Watford Dr. David B. Moore Project Director, BRE Watford Mrs. Aldina SantiagoResearch Student, University of Coimbra Prof. Luis S. da SilvaResearch Group Member, University of Coimbra Mr. Paul SimsProject Manager, BRE Watford Dr. Zdeněk SokolResearch Group Member, CTU Prague Dr. Jan PašekResearch Group Member, CTU Prague Mr. Nick PettyContracted Technicians, BRE Watford Mr. Jiří SvobodaRes. Group Member, TMV SS, Prague Prof. František WaldEuropean Research Group Leader, CTU Prague Mr. David White Project Leader, BRE Watford

49 49 Lesson Script Prof. František WaldCzech Technical University in Prague Prof. Ian Burges University of Sheffield Dr. David Moore Building Research Establisment, Watford Prof. Luis S. da SilvaUniversity of Coimbra Camera Mr. Luis BorgesUniversity Coimbra Mr. Dalibor GregorCzech Technical University in Prague Dr. Jan Pašek Czech Technical University in Prague Dr. Zdeněk Sokol Czech Technical University in Prague Mr. Jiří SvobodaTMV SS, Prague Photos Mrs. Petra Hřebíková Czech Technical University in Prague Mrs. Magdaléna ChladnáTechnical University, Bratislava Production Mr. Richard SýkoraCzech Technical University in Prague Mrs. Zdeňka ZochováCzech Technical University in Prague The content of this project does not necessarily reflect the position of the European Community or the National Agency, nor does it involve any responsibility on their part.


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