Presentation on theme: "HIGH SPEED RAIL CORRIDOR"— Presentation transcript:
1HIGH SPEED RAIL CORRIDOR DELHI-AGRA-LUCKNOW-VARANASI-PATNAInternational Seminar on "High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“ 1st & 2nd February New Delhi.
2GeneralVision 2020 identified 6 HSR corridors for pre-feasibility study (PFS)Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna is the longest Corridor1000+ km long corridor passes through densely populated, Northern India’s fertile Gangetic PlanesConnects Delhi with all major cities of UP and Bihar’s capital Patna;These cities are also important historical and religious tourist destinationsKanpur, Allahabad and Mathura are other major cities on the corridor
4GENERAL Mott Macdonald selected for PFS; Submitted report in 2011 JICA submitted a report on HSR between Delhi-Agra-Kanpur in 1987; Speed in the range of 250 kmphProject dropped in 2001 perhaps because of high cost and financial unviability
5Existing Transport Infrastructure The corridor generally lies on the densely saturated Delhi-Kolkata IR trunk routeA separate Eastern DFC is being constructed which is expected to free additional capacities for running of passenger trains in the existing IR routeAll these cities are also well connected by road (NH-2 and other Highways) as well as airportsYamuna Expressway ( 6 lane road) between Delhi – Agra opened in 2012
6Access Controlled, 6-lane, upgradable to 8 lane Noida-Agra Yamuna ExpresswayAccess Controlled, 6-lane, upgradable to 8 lane
7Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway 165 KM ; Total Cost Rs Crores Rs 80Cr/KM)100 mts wide right of way
8Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway A Greenfield airport proposed along the expressway
9Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway Liberal property development rights to promoter Jaypee groupA number of residential and commercial real estate projectscoming up
11Conditions for suitability of HSR Corridor Existence of populous cities in the mid distance range of km, having high and concentrated demand for travelHigh disposable income and paying capacity of the travelling publicExisting transport infrastructure are saturatedHigh GDP growth rateOther FactorsNon availability of cheap, local source of oil in plentyAirports are located far from city centresIncreasing environmental and sustainability concerns
12Why HSRInternational historical experience - as economy develops conventional rail (speed kmph) unable to hold its market shareNegative effects of overdependence on Roads and airwayscongestionenvironmental degradation,depleting oil reservesroad accidents
13Why HSRMore energy efficient, land efficient and environmental friendly than Roads and AirwaysCO2 per passenger-kilometer - HSR grams, automobiles 150 gms and 170 grams for airplanes.A double track HSR equivalent to twice the capacity of a six lane HighwayEnergy efficiency – Fuel consumption of HSR – about 1/3rd of that of aircraft and 1/5th of that of private car.HSR provides more frequent, convenient, reliable service
14Suitability of HSR in Indian Context India has emerged as one of the fastest growing developing country during last decade;Growing middle class with disposable incomeRapid urbanizationGrowth in demand for intercity transport specially between metropolitan areas and 2nd/3rd tier citiesInter-city car and air traffic is increasing at about 15-20% per annum in many corridors;
15Suitability of HSR in Indian Context Increasing congestion on roads, Delhi airports, increasing road accidentsMetros like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai getting choked; Need to develop 2nd /3rd tier citiesNeed for modal shift to energy/land efficient and environment friendly HSR/conventional Rail modeAs engine of economic growth; creating jobs and facilitating other services and industries
16Suitability of HSR in Indian Context High population densityRelatively young age profilePopulation growth expected to continueMaximum population in working age group (Low Dependency Ratio)A number of urban conglomerates within suitable distance range of KmLand becoming a scarce commodity; increasing difficulty in land acquisitionIncreasing oil import bills to meet the growing demands from roads/airways; This is affecting India’s trade deficit and exchange rate stability.
17Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Favourable factor Connects major cities of UP and Bihar with Delhi; Heavy travel demand in the corridorThe cities on the corridor are important historical and religious tourist placesVery high population density within the cities as well as catchment areaPopulation growth rate is higher than India average
18Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Favourable factor Except for Varanasi all other cities are growing at very fast rateExisting IR corridor, NH-2 and Delhi airport is saturatedThe region is fertile plain land and people are generally well offPlain land – so civil cost of HSR will be lessLand is a scarce commodity; resistance to land acquisition
19Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Unfavourable factor Many stretch along corridor are low lying and flood prone – elevated corridor requiredExcept Delhi, IT and other high end service and manufacturing industries not well developedRiver crossings at many locations (major rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Sone)Eastern DFC
20Options for HSR in the Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna Corridor Two options1) Upgrade the existing rail corridor upto speed of kmph, after segregation of DFC2) To lay dedicated HSR corridor speed KMPHStudy shows that though upgrading the existing rail corridor will meet the short/medium term requirement of 5-10 years, considering overall economical rate of return, a dedicated HSR in the corridor is desirable in long termBoth conventional and HSR corridor will be required to serve to different segment of customersExisting Railway stations are saturated and congested
21Population of major cities(2011) Population (District)Population - CityDelhi16.8Agra4.41.3Lucknow4.62.2Varanasi3.71.2Patna5.81.7Kanpur5.4Allahabad5.962.7
22Daily Traffic Volume (AC/premium class only) (2011)DelhiAgraLucknowVaranasiPatnaTotalCar-370055048036017300Rail(AC)5602200850150011000Air1018005007507000Bus(AC)40020037500DailyAnnualCar173506.33720013.615780057.6Rail(AC)1100043180011.6242400Air70002.6193007.113170048.1Bus(AC)22000.848001.7203007.4Total3750013.79310034552200201.6
23Forecast HSR daily passenger demand in 2020 (Trips per day)
24Forcast HSR daily paasenger demand in 2045(Trips per day)
25Route Alignment Delhi to Agra Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor to Mathura and Agra.Option 2 - Initially follows the existing rail corridor to Faridabadbefore using a direct (straight line) route to Agra.Option 3 - Follows the newly constructed Yamuna Express Wayfrom Greater Noida to AgraOption 4– Starting at Indira Ghandi Airport, follows a corridor to thewest of DehliOption 5– Follows the existing rail corridor via Aligarh.
26Route Alignment Agra to Lucknow Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Kanpurto Lucknow and connects to an intermediate station at KanpurOption 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route betweenAgra and Lucknow (avoiding Kanpur)Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Kanpur and continues on a direct route from Kanpur to Lucknow.
27Route Alignment Lucknow to Varanasi Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via SultanpurOption 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) routebetween Lucknow and VaranasiOption 3 – Follows a direct route to Allahabad and alsoa direct route between Allahabad to Varanasi.
28Route Alignment Varanasi to Patna Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via ArrahOption 2 – Follows a direct route between Varanasi and Patnabut uses the existing rail corridor east of Varanasiand also uses the existing rail corridor for theapproach to Patna.
29Corridor Map: Distance and Time 500 Km2 Hrs7 HrsDelhi1000 Km4 hrs12 HrsLucknowAgra190 Km50 minutes2 HrsKanpurPatnaAllahabadVaranasi780 Km3 hrs10 HrsHSR time Ex DelhiFastest conventional Rail Time
30Features of proposed HSR No interoperability with existing IR networkStandard GaugeHSR station of Delhi – At Pragati Maidan or close to NizamuddinStation at other locations at city outskirts
31Features of proposed HSR Indian market is very price sensitive; so it will become essential to keep the fares of HSR about 10-15% less than airfareHSR fare would have to kept in the range of Rs 4-5 per KMTrain frequency – every 10 minutesStation dwell time 5 minutes at intermediate stations10-30 minutes at terminating stations
32Technologies Civil Structure and Track On 6 m high embankment wherever possible, at low lying and congested areas on elevated viaductStandard Guage Ballastless or Slab track trackTrack seperation 5.3 mtsUIC 60 (CEN 60) railswing nose crossings turnouts that can be operated at 230km/h on the diverted track.Horizontal Curves Radius > 6000 mts
33Technologies Rolling Stock Max operating speed 300 kmph (Design Speed – 350)8/16 car distributed trainset, (energy efficient, reduced energy and weight/passenger, light axle load T, HOG, regenerative brakingTrain length 200/400 mtsPassenger Capacity – 650/1300 personsPower requirement – 8.5/17 MW per train( kW per Tonne or about kW per seat)Acceleration from Kmph – 4-5 minutes, KMBraking from 300 – 0 Kmph Minutes, 7-8 KMArticulated/Non articulated bogie
34Technologies Power Supply 2 x 25kV 50hz AC auto transformer feed TSS - Every 50km (approx), Fed from HV supplies at 220kV, 2 x 80MVA transformers at each supply point.Autotransformer system ( kV), Autotransformers located every 10km (approx)SCADA system provided for control
35Technologies Signalling and communications CBTC, In cab signalling, ETCS 2 or ETCS 3(Moving block, high capacity; 3 to 5 min headways)Automatic train control / protectionTrain detection (Axle counters)Communication – GSM-RTETRA (Voice Communication)Fibre Optic Transmission Network
36OperationYear 2020 –Nineteen 8 car units out of which 15 in operationTrain frequency every 10 minutesYear 2045 –Forty Eight 16 car units out of which forty four in serviceTrain frequency every 5 minutesDepot Location at Lucknow
37The terminal station in Delhi will be at Pragati Maidan The terminal station in Delhi will be at Pragati Maidan. A 6-platform station is recommended with additional passive provision to extend this to 8 platforms when passenger demand justifies it. The station platforms are elevated at approximately 8m above ground level and arranged as 2 island platforms and 2 side platforms.Agra station will be at grade and located on the left of the NH-2 (Agra - Kanpur), on the right side of the Yamuna Expressway at the intersection of the YEW and NH2. A 2-platform arrangement is provided at Agra that incorporates a turn back siding.Lucknow station will be at grade and located in proximity to Lucknow Airport along the east part of the National Highway 25 (Lucknow - Kanpur). A 4-platform arrangement is provided which also incorporates a turn back facility.
38Allahabad station will be at grade and located adjacent to the existing Phaphamau railway station just east of the NH93. A 2- platform station is recommended at Phapaphamu.Varanasi station will be at grade and located in the southern outskirts of the city in proximity to Delhi Public School along State Highway98 near its intersection with SH 74. A 2-platform station arrangement is recommended at Varanasi, incorporating a turn back siding.Patna station will be at grade and located at the site of the Airport (which will be vacated) in close proximity of Phulwari Sharif railway station. A 4 platform terminal station is recommended.
39Finance Cost – Rs 100 to 110 Crs per Route KM with land acquisition - Rs Crs per route Km without land acquisitionUnit CostEmbankment – Rs 10 Cr/KmElevated Viaduct - Rs 50/KMBridge - Rs 500/KmTunnel - Rs 600/KmTrainset ( 8 car) – Rs 220 CrO&M Cost Rs 0.5 per passenger KM (other than rolling stock)Economic Rate of Return – 18-21%Financial Rate of Return %
40ConclusionUpgrading of existing IR Delhi-Kolkata line may work for short/medium term of 10 yrsIn long term dedicated HSR is essential for the corridorThe HSR should be on standard gaugeMobilizing huge initial capital investment will be a big challenge. PPP route is suggested. Still Govt will have to provide for VGF and counter guarantee for LoanTo attract private players PPP framework should allocate risk judiciously.
41ConclusionAdequate provision for non farebox revenue by way of property development and rentals to keep the ticket price competitiveHSR should come up as part of overall development package including land-use, integrated transport. State government would have to play active part.Associated benefits of HSR along with increased tax revenue to Govt would pay off for the initial capital investment.
44France has over 1500 km of HSR route serving 9 major cities Germany has 4 HSR routes covering almost 900 km with 3 further routes plannedTGV, FranceICE, Germany
45Overseas HSRSpain has several HSR routes open or under construction totalling over 1000 kmJapan opened the world’s first HSR in 1964, the Tokyo to Osaka Shinkansen, which has since been expanded (now over 2400 km)Alaris, SpainShinkansenJapan
46Case study of Japan HSR System Rolling Stock: Shinkansen N700Dedicated route, Standard UIC track gauge (1,435mm)Structure: mainly elevatedBroad car body gauge (# 3.38m, 3+2 seats), non articulatedConfiguration: 16-car unit, 402m long, 970 tCapacity: 1,323 seatsPower: AC 25kV, MW, distributed tractionOperation speed: 300km/h
47Case study of French HSR System Rolling Stock: TGV DuplexDedicated/conventional routes, Standard UIC track gaugeStructure: mainly at grade, elevatedUIC car body gauge (# 2.90m, 2+2 seats), articulatedConfiguration: 8-car unit, 200m long, 380 tCapacity: 545 seats (with one bar coach),Power: AC 25kV, 9.8 MW, 2 power carsOperation speed: 300km/h
48Case study of Chinese HSR System Rolling Stock: CRH 380BLDedicated/conventional routes, Standard UIC track gaugeBroad car body gauge (# 3.27m, 3+2 seats), non articulatedConfiguration: 16-car unit, 400m long, # 920 tCapacity: 1,043 seatsPower: AC 25kV, 18.4 MW, distributed tractionOperation speed: 350km/h recently reduced to 300km/h or lessBased on German technology (Siemens Velaro)
51Technologies Track, Civils and Power Continuously welded rail Resilient trackform (quieter)Viaducts, tunnels commonSubstantially straightFairly large gradientsDedicated – no mixed train types, little or no freight50kV autotransformer OLENuclear powered….in France.
52World Bank Study: High-Speed Rail: The FastTrack to Economic Development?, Paul Amos, Dick Bullock, and Jitendra Sondhi, July 2010Most lines at least recover their operating and maintenance costsDifficult to recover capital costs from passenger revenues alone, but there are strong socio-economic effects: