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DELHI-AGRA-LUCKNOW-VARANASI-PATNA International Seminar on "High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“ 1st & 2nd February 2013 New Delhi.

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Presentation on theme: "DELHI-AGRA-LUCKNOW-VARANASI-PATNA International Seminar on "High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“ 1st & 2nd February 2013 New Delhi."— Presentation transcript:

1 DELHI-AGRA-LUCKNOW-VARANASI-PATNA International Seminar on "High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“ 1st & 2nd February 2013 New Delhi.

2 General Vision 2020 identified 6 HSR corridors for pre-feasibility study (PFS) Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna is the longest Corridor km long corridor passes through densely populated, Northern India’s fertile Gangetic Planes Connects Delhi with all major cities of UP and Bihar’s capital Patna; These cities are also important historical and religious tourist destinations Kanpur, Allahabad and Mathura are other major cities on the corridor

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4 GENERAL Mott Macdonald selected for PFS; Submitted report in 2011 JICA submitted a report on HSR between Delhi-Agra- Kanpur in 1987; Speed in the range of 250 kmph Project dropped in 2001 perhaps because of high cost and financial unviability

5 Existing Transport Infrastructure The corridor generally lies on the densely saturated Delhi- Kolkata IR trunk route A separate Eastern DFC is being constructed which is expected to free additional capacities for running of passenger trains in the existing IR route All these cities are also well connected by road (NH-2 and other Highways) as well as airports Yamuna Expressway ( 6 lane road) between Delhi – Agra opened in 2012

6 Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway  Access Controlled, 6-lane, upgradable to 8 lane

7 Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway  165 KM ; Total Cost Rs Crores Rs 80 Cr/KM)  100 mts wide right of way

8  A Greenfield airport proposed along the expressway Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway

9  Liberal property development rights to promoter Jaypee group  A number of residential and commercial real estate projects coming up Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway

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11 Conditions for suitability of HSR Corridor Existence of populous cities in the mid distance range of km, having high and concentrated demand for travel High disposable income and paying capacity of the travelling public Existing transport infrastructure are saturated High GDP growth rate Other Factors Non availability of cheap, local source of oil in plenty Airports are located far from city centres Increasing environmental and sustainability concerns

12 Why HSR International historical experience - as economy develops conventional rail (speed kmph) unable to hold its market share Negative effects of overdependence on Roads and airways congestion environmental degradation, depleting oil reserves road accidents

13 More energy efficient, land efficient and environmental friendly than Roads and Airways CO2 per passenger-kilometer - HSR grams, automobiles 150 gms and 170 grams for airplanes. A double track HSR equivalent to twice the capacity of a six lane Highway Energy efficiency – Fuel consumption of HSR – about 1/3 rd of that of aircraft and 1/5 th of that of private car. HSR provides more frequent, convenient, reliable service Why HSR

14 Suitability of HSR in Indian Context India has emerged as one of the fastest growing developing country during last decade; Growing middle class with disposable income Rapid urbanization Growth in demand for intercity transport specially between metropolitan areas and 2 nd /3 rd tier cities Inter-city car and air traffic is increasing at about 15-20% per annum in many corridors;

15 Increasing congestion on roads, Delhi airports, increasing road accidents Metros like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai getting choked; Need to develop 2 nd / 3 rd tier cities Need for modal shift to energy/land efficient and environment friendly HSR/conventional Rail mode As engine of economic growth; creating jobs and facilitating other services and industries Suitability of HSR in Indian Context

16 High population density Relatively young age profile Population growth expected to continue Maximum population in working age group (Low Dependency Ratio) A number of urban conglomerates within suitable distance range of Km Land becoming a scarce commodity; increasing difficulty in land acquisition Increasing oil import bills to meet the growing demands from roads/airways; This is affecting India’s trade deficit and exchange rate stability. Suitability of HSR in Indian Context

17 Connects major cities of UP and Bihar with Delhi; Heavy travel demand in the corridor The cities on the corridor are important historical and religious tourist places Very high population density within the cities as well as catchment area Population growth rate is higher than India average Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Favourable factor

18 Except for Varanasi all other cities are growing at very fast rate Existing IR corridor, NH-2 and Delhi airport is saturated The region is fertile plain land and people are generally well off Plain land – so civil cost of HSR will be less Land is a scarce commodity; resistance to land acquisition Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Favourable factor

19 Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor : Unfavourable factor Many stretch along corridor are low lying and flood prone – elevated corridor required Except Delhi, IT and other high end service and manufacturing industries not well developed River crossings at many locations (major rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Sone) Eastern DFC

20 Options for HSR in the Delhi-Agra-Lucknow- Varanasi-Patna Corridor Two options 1) Upgrade the existing rail corridor upto speed of kmph, after segregation of DFC 2) To lay dedicated HSR corridor speed KMPH Study shows that though upgrading the existing rail corridor will meet the short/medium term requirement of 5-10 years, considering overall economical rate of return, a dedicated HSR in the corridor is desirable in long term Both conventional and HSR corridor will be required to serve to different segment of customers Existing Railway stations are saturated and congested

21 Population of major cities(2011) Population (District) Population - City Delhi16.8 Agra Lucknow Varanasi Patna Kanpur5.4 Allahabad

22 Daily Traffic Volume (AC/premium class only) DelhiAgraLucknowVaranasiPatnaTotal Car Rail(AC) Air Bus(AC) Total DailyAnnualDailyAnnualDailyAnnual Car Rail(AC) Air Bus(AC) Total (2011)

23 Forecast HSR daily passenger demand in 2020 (Trips per day)

24 Forcast HSR daily paasenger demand in 2045(Trips per day)

25 Delhi to Agra Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor to Mathura and Agra. Option 2 - Initially follows the existing rail corridor to Faridabad before using a direct (straight line) route to Agra. Option 3 - Follows the newly constructed Yamuna Express Way from Greater Noida to Agra Option 4– Starting at Indira Ghandi Airport, follows a corridor to the west of Dehli Option 5– Follows the existing rail corridor via Aligarh. Route Alignment

26 Agra to Lucknow Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Kanpur to Lucknow and connects to an intermediate station at Kanpur Option 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route between Agra and Lucknow (avoiding Kanpur) Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Kanpur and continues on a direct route from Kanpur to Lucknow. Route Alignment

27 Lucknow to Varanasi Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Sultanpur Option 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route between Lucknow and Varanasi Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Allahabad and also a direct route between Allahabad to Varanasi. Route Alignment

28 Varanasi to Patna Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Arrah Option 2 – Follows a direct route between Varanasi and Patna but uses the existing rail corridor east of Varanasi and also uses the existing rail corridor for the approach to Patna. Route Alignment

29 Delhi Agra 190 Km 50 minutes 2 Hrs 500 Km 2 Hrs 7 Hrs Lucknow Varanasi 780 Km 3 hrs 10 Hrs Patna 1000 Km 4 hrs 12 Hrs Kanpur Allahabad Corridor Map: Distance and Time HSR time Ex Delhi Fastest conventional Rail Time

30 Features of proposed HSR No interoperability with existing IR network Standard Gauge HSR station of Delhi – At Pragati Maidan or close to Nizamuddin Station at other locations at city outskirts

31 Features of proposed HSR Indian market is very price sensitive; so it will become essential to keep the fares of HSR about 10-15% less than airfare HSR fare would have to kept in the range of Rs 4-5 per KM Train frequency – every 10 minutes Station dwell time 5 minutes at intermediate stations minutes at terminating stations

32 Civil Structure and Track On 6 m high embankment wherever possible, at low lying and congested areas on elevated viaduct Standard Guage Ballastless or Slab track track Track seperation 5.3 mts UIC 60 (CEN 60) rail swing nose crossings turnouts that can be operated at 230km/h on the diverted track. Horizontal Curves Radius > 6000 mts Technologies

33 Max operating speed 300 kmph (Design Speed – 350) 8/16 car distributed trainset, (energy efficient, reduced energy and weight/passenger, light axle load T, HOG, regenerative braking Train length 200/400 mts Passenger Capacity – 650/1300 persons Power requirement – 8.5/17 MW per train ( kW per Tonne or about kW per seat) Acceleration from Kmph – 4-5 minutes, KM Braking from 300 – 0 Kmph- 3 Minutes, 7-8 KM Articulated/Non articulated bogie Technologies Rolling Stock

34 2 x 25kV 50hz AC auto transformer feed TSS - Every 50km (approx), Fed from HV supplies at 220kV, 2 x 80MVA transformers at each supply point. Autotransformer system ( kV), Autotransformers located every 10km (approx) SCADA system provided for control Technologies Power Supply

35 Signalling and communications CBTC, In cab signalling, ETCS 2 or ETCS 3 (Moving block, high capacity; 3 to 5 min headways) Automatic train control / protection Train detection (Axle counters) Communication – GSM-R TETRA (Voice Communication) Fibre Optic Transmission Network Technologies

36 Operation Year 2020 – Nineteen 8 car units out of which 15 in operation Train frequency every 10 minutes Year 2045 – Forty Eight 16 car units out of which forty four in service Train frequency every 5 minutes Depot Location at Lucknow

37 The terminal station in Delhi will be at Pragati Maidan. A 6- platform station is recommended with additional passive provision to extend this to 8 platforms when passenger demand justifies it. The station platforms are elevated at approximately 8m above ground level and arranged as 2 island platforms and 2 side platforms. Agra station will be at grade and located on the left of the NH-2 (Agra - Kanpur), on the right side of the Yamuna Expressway at the intersection of the YEW and NH2. A 2-platform arrangement is provided at Agra that incorporates a turn back siding. Lucknow station will be at grade and located in proximity to Lucknow Airport along the east part of the National Highway 25 (Lucknow - Kanpur). A 4-platform arrangement is provided which also incorporates a turn back facility.

38 Allahabad station will be at grade and located adjacent to the existing Phaphamau railway station just east of the NH93. A 2- platform station is recommended at Phapaphamu. Varanasi station will be at grade and located in the southern outskirts of the city in proximity to Delhi Public School along State Highway98 near its intersection with SH 74. A 2-platform station arrangement is recommended at Varanasi, incorporating a turn back siding. Patna station will be at grade and located at the site of the Airport (which will be vacated) in close proximity of Phulwari Sharif railway station. A 4 platform terminal station is recommended.

39 Finance Cost – Rs 100 to 110 Crs per Route KM with land acquisition - Rs Crs per route Km without land acquisition Unit Cost Embankment – Rs 10 Cr/Km Elevated Viaduct- Rs 50/KM Bridge- Rs 500/Km Tunnel- Rs 600/Km Trainset ( 8 car) – Rs 220 Cr O&M Cost Rs 0.5 per passenger KM (other than rolling stock) Economic Rate of Return – 18-21% Financial Rate of Return %

40 Conclusion Upgrading of existing IR Delhi-Kolkata line may work for short/medium term of 10 yrs In long term dedicated HSR is essential for the corridor The HSR should be on standard gauge Mobilizing huge initial capital investment will be a big challenge. PPP route is suggested. Still Govt will have to provide for VGF and counter guarantee for Loan To attract private players PPP framework should allocate risk judiciously.

41 Adequate provision for non farebox revenue by way of property development and rentals to keep the ticket price competitive HSR should come up as part of overall development package including land-use, integrated transport. State government would have to play active part. Associated benefits of HSR along with increased tax revenue to Govt would pay off for the initial capital investment. Conclusion

42 Thank You

43 The TGV at 574 km/h in 2007

44 TGV, France ICE, Germany France has over 1500 km of HSR route serving 9 major cities Germany has 4 HSR routes covering almost 900 km with 3 further routes planned

45 Overseas HSR Spain has several HSR routes open or under construction totalling over 1000 km Japan opened the world’s first HSR in 1964, the Tokyo to Osaka Shinkansen, which has since been expanded (now over 2400 km) ShinkansenJ apan Alaris, Spain

46 Rolling Stock: Shinkansen N700 Dedicated route, Standard UIC track gauge (1,435mm) Structure: mainly elevated Broad car body gauge (# 3.38m, 3+2 seats), non articulated Configuration: 16-car unit, 402m long, 970 t Capacity: 1,323 seats Power: AC 25kV, MW, distributed traction Operation speed: 300km/h Case study of Japan HSR System

47 Rolling Stock: TGV DuplexDedicated/conventional routes, Standard UIC track gaugeStructure: mainly at grade, elevatedUIC car body gauge (# 2.90m, 2+2 seats), articulatedConfiguration: 8-car unit, 200m long, 380 tCapacity: 545 seats (with one bar coach),Power: AC 25kV, 9.8 MW, 2 power carsOperation speed: 300km/h Case study of French HSR System

48 Rolling Stock: CRH 380BLDedicated/conventional routes, Standard UIC track gaugeBroad car body gauge (# 3.27m, 3+2 seats), non articulatedConfiguration: 16-car unit, 400m long, # 920 tCapacity: 1,043 seatsPower: AC 25kV, 18.4 MW, distributed tractionOperation speed: 350km/h recently reduced to 300km/h or lessBased on German technology (Siemens Velaro) Case study of Chinese HSR System

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51 Technologies Track, Civils and Power Continuously welded rail Resilient trackform (quieter) Viaducts, tunnels common Substantially straight Fairly large gradients Dedicated – no mixed train types, little or no freight 50kV autotransformer OLE Nuclear powered….in France.

52  World Bank Study: High-Speed Rail: The FastTrack to Economic Development?, Paul Amos, Dick Bullock, and Jitendra Sondhi, July 2010  Most lines at least recover their operating and maintenance costs  Difficult to recover capital costs from passenger revenues alone, but there are strong socio-economic effects:

53 Technologies


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