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Engineering System ENG001 Case study on BRIDGES Civil Engg. Group TEQIP-II Institutions.

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Presentation on theme: "Engineering System ENG001 Case study on BRIDGES Civil Engg. Group TEQIP-II Institutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Engineering System ENG001 Case study on BRIDGES Civil Engg. Group TEQIP-II Institutions

2 Session-1 1.Tension - a force which acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is acting on. 2.Compression - a force which acts to compress or shorten the thing it is acting on. Concepts Compression Tension

3 Session-1 3.Bending - When something pushes down on the beam, the beam bends. Its top edge is pushed together, and its bottom edge is pulled apart. 4.Stresses 5.Deflection Concepts

4 Session-2 6.Span- the distance between two bridge supports, whether they are columns, towers. 7.Factor of safety 8.Loads Concepts L= Length of Bridge

5 Session-2 Concepts Freeboard The difference between H.F.L. (allowing afflux) and formation level of road embankment on approaches. H.F.L. Highest flood level is the level of highest flood ever recorded or the calculated level for design discharge. AffluxThe rise in the flood level of the river immediately on the upstream of a bridge as a result of obstruction to natural flow caused by the construction of bridge and its approaches.

6 Session-3 What is a need of Bridges? A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley. In other words, bridge is a structure for carrying the road traffic or other moving loads over a depression or obstruction such as channel, road or railway.

7 Session-3 Historical Background Primitive Peoples: Logs Slabs of Rocks Intertwined Vines or Ropes Roman Empire First Great Bridge Builders Timber Truss Bridges Masonry Arch Bridges Europeans Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use Nineteenth Century— Modern Long Bridges Moveable Bridges

8 Session-3 Famous Bridges Millau Viaduct, France: Erasmus Bridge, Rotterdam : 808 m long, 32 m wide & 343 m high Sutong Bridge, China : 8206 m long Akashi Bridge, Japan : 3911 m long

9 Session-3 Components of Bridges

10 VARIOUS TYPE OF FOUNDATIONS A.Foundations  Shallow Foundations 1.Open foundations : Hard Strata is met at Shallow Depth or depth of foundation is upto 5 to 6 m. 2.Raft foundations : Foundation Strata is weak having low SBC  Deep Foundations 1.Pile Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow depth and scour depth is considerable. 2.Well Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow depth, scour depth is considerable and foundation is in water (may be river, sea).

11 Components of Bridges Sinking of Well Foundation Boring of Pile FoundationCasing of Pile Foundation

12 Components of Bridges  Various Type of Substructures Abutment o Cantilever wall type RCC o Gravity type PCC o Counter fort type o Spill through type o Box type Piers o Wall type o Circular type o Semi circular type o Y-shape type Wing wall / Return wall o Cantilever wall type RCC and PCC o Counter fort type o Box type o RE Wall o Gabion Wall Toe wall –RCC and PCC type B.Substructures

13 Components of Bridges B.Substructures Cross Section of Pier with Pile Foundation Cross Section of counterfort Abutment

14 Components of Bridges B.Substructures Counterfort type Abutment Wall type Abutment

15 Components of Bridges B.Substructures Circular Type Pier Wall type Pier

16 C.Superstructures Components of Bridges Earlier practice for Superstructure:  Girders and slab system or Box girders were designed & used  Girders & slabs system was more prominent due to majority bridges being of small / moderate spans. Emerging design trend for Superstructure is Long span bridges  Continuous structures  Segmental construction o Cast-in-situ o Pre-cast  Steel / concrete composite constructions  Extra dosed cable stayed structure to bridge longer span with shorter depths  Cable stayed bridges  Suspension bridges

17 C.Superstructures Components of Bridges Solid Slab type Superstructure Voided Slab type Superstructure

18 C.Superstructures Components of Bridges RCC Multi-girder slab system PSC Multi-girder slab system

19 C.Superstructures Components of Bridges PSC Box type Superstructure Steel type of Superstructure

20 C.Superstructures Components of Bridges Cable Suspension Bow String Girder

21 C.Superstructures Components of Bridges PSC Box type Superstructure Balance cantilever type Superstructure

22 Classification of Bridges  Bridges may be classified in many ways, as below: According to the functions as aqueduct (canal or a river), viaduct (road, railway over a valley) pedestrian, highway, railway, road cum rail or a pipeline bridge. According to material of construction of superstructure as timber, masonry, iron steel, RCC, PSC, composite etc. According to form of superstructure as slab, girder(T girder, Box girder), truss, arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge. According to inter-span relations as simple, continuous or cantilever. According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below, particularly for a highway bridge, as high level or submersible bridge. According to the length of bridge Length > 60m major bridges, 60m > Length > 6m minor Bridges, 6 > span Culverts. According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as permanent, temporary, military (pontoon, Bailey) bridge. Session-4

23 Classification of Bridges According to the functions as aqueduct (canal or a river), viaduct (road, railway over a valley), pedestrian, highway, railway, road cum rail or a pipeline bridge. Canal Bridge Pedestrian Bridge Railway Bridge

24 Classification of Bridges Highway Bridge (Flyover) Railway Over Bridge River Bridge

25 Classification of Bridges According to material of construction of superstructure as timber, masonry, iron steel, RCC, PSC, composite etc. Iron Steel Bridge RCC Bridge Timber Bridge Masonry Bridge

26 Classification of Bridges According to form of superstructure as slab, girder (T-girder, Box girder), truss, bridge. Slab Bridge Truss Bridge Box girder bridge T Girder Bridge

27 Classification of Bridges According to form of superstructure as arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge. Arch Bridge Cable Stayed Bridge Suspension Bridge

28 Classification of Bridges According to inter-span relations as simple, continuous or cantilever. Balanced Cantilever Bridge Continuous Girder Bridge

29 Classification of Bridges According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below, particularly for a highway bridge, as high level or submersible bridge. High Level Bridge Submersible Bridge

30 Classification of Bridges According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as permanent, temporary, military (pontoon, Bailey) bridge. Pontoon type temporary Bridge Temporary Bailey Bridge Temporary Military Bridge

31 Session-5 Data Collections for Bridges 1.Hydraulic data 2. Site selection 3.Type of Bridges 4. Loading (IRC Standards) 5. Materials 6. Construction Techniques 7. Economy 8. Most Economical Span

32 Session-6 State-of the Art in Bridges 1.Takanaka nerrows Bridge- Japan 2. Various failure of bridges in world and India

33 References Principles and Practice of Bridge Engineering By S. P. Bindra. Dhanpatrai publication Bridge Engineering by S. C. Rangwala. Charotar Publication

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