Presentation on theme: "TEQIP-II Institutions"— Presentation transcript:
1TEQIP-II Institutions Engineering SystemENG001Case study onBRIDGESCivil Engg. GroupTEQIP-II Institutions
2Session-1ConceptsTension - a force which acts to expand or lengthen the thing it is acting on.Compression - a force which acts to compress or shorten the thing it is acting on.CompressionTension
3Session-1ConceptsBending - When something pushes down on the beam, the beam bends. Its top edge is pushed together, and its bottom edge is pulled apart.StressesDeflection
4Session-2ConceptsSpan- the distance between two bridge supports, whether they are columns, towers .Factor of safetyLoadsL= Length of Bridge
5Session-2 Concepts Freeboard The difference between H.F.L. (allowing afflux) and formation level of road embankment on approaches.H.F.L.Highest flood level is the level of highest flood ever recorded or the calculated level for design discharge.AffluxThe rise in the flood level of the river immediately on the upstream of a bridge as a result of obstruction to natural flow caused by the construction of bridge and its approaches.
6What is a need of Bridges? Session-3What is a need of Bridges?A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.In other words, bridge is a structure for carrying the road traffic or other moving loads over a depression or obstruction such as channel, road or railway.
7Historical Background Session-3Historical BackgroundPrimitive Peoples:LogsSlabs of RocksIntertwined Vines or RopesRoman EmpireFirst Great Bridge BuildersTimber Truss BridgesMasonry Arch BridgesEuropeansFollowed HRE Until Iron and Steel UseNineteenth Century—Modern Long BridgesMoveable Bridges
8Session-3 Famous Bridges Millau Viaduct, France:Erasmus Bridge, Rotterdam :808 m long, 32 m wide & 343 m highAkashi Bridge, Japan :3911 m longSutong Bridge, China :8206 m long
10Components of Bridges A. Foundations Shallow Foundations VARIOUS TYPE OF FOUNDATIONSShallow Foundations1. Open foundations : Hard Strata is met at Shallow Depth or depth of foundation is upto 5 to 6 m.2. Raft foundations : Foundation Strata is weak having low SBCDeep Foundations1. Pile Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow depth and scour depth is considerable.2. Well Foundations: Hard strata is not available at shallow depth, scour depth is considerable and foundation is in water (may be river, sea).
11Sinking of Well Foundation Boring of Pile Foundation Components of BridgesSinking of Well FoundationBoring of Pile FoundationCasing of Pile Foundation
12Components of Bridges B. Substructures Various Type of Substructures AbutmentCantilever wall type RCCGravity type PCCCounter fort typeSpill through typeBox typePiersWall typeCircular typeSemi circular typeY-shape typeWing wall / Return wallCantilever wall type RCC and PCCRE WallGabion WallToe wall –RCC and PCC type
13Components of Bridges B. Substructures Cross Section of Pier with Pile FoundationCross Section of counterfort Abutment
14Counterfort type Abutment Components of BridgesB. SubstructuresWall type AbutmentCounterfort type Abutment
15Components of Bridges B. Substructures Circular Type Pier Wall type Pier
16Components of Bridges C. Superstructures Earlier practice for Superstructure:Girders and slab system or Box girders were designed & usedGirders & slabs system was more prominent due to majority bridges being of small / moderate spans.Emerging design trend for Superstructure isLong span bridgesContinuous structuresSegmental constructionCast-in-situPre-castSteel / concrete composite constructionsExtra dosed cable stayed structure to bridge longer span with shorter depthsCable stayed bridgesSuspension bridges
17Solid Slab type Superstructure Voided Slab type Superstructure Components of BridgesC. SuperstructuresSolid Slab type SuperstructureVoided Slab type Superstructure
18PSC Multi-girder slab system Components of BridgesC. SuperstructuresRCC Multi-girder slab systemPSC Multi-girder slab system
19PSC Box type Superstructure Steel type of Superstructure Components of BridgesC. SuperstructuresPSC Box type SuperstructureSteel type of Superstructure
20Components of Bridges C. Superstructures Cable Suspension Bow String Girder
21PSC Box type Superstructure Balance cantilever type Superstructure Components of BridgesC. SuperstructuresPSC Box type SuperstructureBalance cantilever type Superstructure
22Classification of Bridges Session-4Classification of BridgesBridges may be classified in many ways, as below:According to the functions as aqueduct (canal or a river), viaduct (road, railway over a valley) pedestrian, highway, railway, road cum rail or a pipeline bridge.According to material of construction of superstructure as timber, masonry, iron steel, RCC, PSC, composite etc.According to form of superstructure as slab, girder(T girder, Box girder), truss, arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge.According to inter-span relations as simple, continuous or cantilever.According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below, particularly for a highway bridge, as high level or submersible bridge.According to the length of bridgeLength > 60m major bridges, 60m > Length > 6m minor Bridges, 6 > span Culverts.According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as permanent, temporary, military (pontoon, Bailey) bridge.
23Classification of Bridges According to the functions as aqueduct (canal or a river), viaduct (road, railway over a valley), pedestrian, highway, railway, road cum rail or a pipeline bridge.Canal BridgePedestrian BridgeRailway Bridge
24Classification of Bridges Highway Bridge (Flyover) River BridgeRailway Over Bridge
25Classification of Bridges According to material of construction of superstructure as timber, masonry, iron steel, RCC, PSC, composite etc.Iron Steel BridgeRCC BridgeTimber BridgeMasonry Bridge
26Classification of Bridges According to form of superstructure as slab, girder (T-girder, Box girder), truss, bridge.T Girder BridgeSlab BridgeTruss BridgeBox girder bridge
27Classification of Bridges According to form of superstructure as arch, cable stayed or suspension bridge.Cable Stayed BridgeArch BridgeSuspension Bridge
28Classification of Bridges According to inter-span relations as simple, continuous or cantilever.Balanced Cantilever BridgeContinuous Girder Bridge
29Classification of Bridges According to the road level relative to the highest flood level of the river below, particularly for a highway bridge, as high level or submersible bridge.High Level BridgeSubmersible Bridge
30Classification of Bridges According to the anticipated type of service and duration of use as permanent, temporary, military (pontoon, Bailey) bridge.Pontoon type temporary BridgeTemporary Bailey BridgeTemporary Military Bridge
31Data Collections for Bridges Session-5Data Collections for BridgesHydraulic dataSite selectionType of BridgesLoading (IRC Standards)MaterialsConstruction TechniquesEconomyMost Economical Span
32State-of the Art in Bridges Session-6State-of the Art in BridgesTakanaka nerrows Bridge- JapanVarious failure of bridges in world and India
33ReferencesPrinciples and Practice of Bridge Engineering By S. P. Bindra. Dhanpatrai publicationBridge Engineering by S. C. Rangwala. Charotar Publication