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Building Planning … Egress & Core strategies. Example, multi-tenant office bulding  Key issues  Return on investment  Clear circulation/wayfinding.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Planning … Egress & Core strategies. Example, multi-tenant office bulding  Key issues  Return on investment  Clear circulation/wayfinding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Planning … Egress & Core strategies

2 Example, multi-tenant office bulding  Key issues  Return on investment  Clear circulation/wayfinding  Maximize value of perimeter glass/views  Allow for street level retail  High net to gross ratio (what’s that?)

3  Net: What you can rent…  Face of wall to face of wall  The higher the net assignable square footage (NASF) the higher the income  Also used to compare efficiency between concepts  Gross: everything else  Stairways  Lobby  Toilets  Custodial  Mechanical/electrical  Wall thicknesses  Amenity spaces (workout/atrium…)

4 Some common net to gross ratios  Administrative buildings 67/33  Auditorium buildings 70/30  Courthouse 61/39  Hospital 55/45  Office buidling 75/25 (80/20 common)  Science building 60/40  Warehouse 93/7  The larger number is usually the net…those functions that are the reason to build the building  The smaller number is the net…those functions that serve the above.

5 … even star architects watch it very closely between schemes

6 Public/employee sequence dominates… but doesn’t locate elevators Lobby/Rec eption/dire ctory/secur ity Entry/vestib ule retail Double loaded lobby allows two retail tenants Single loaded would allow one larger tenant Challenge might be identity

7 Other core responsibilities  Besides housing egress, access, toilets and HVAC, cores often act as the primary space definition elements on a floor.  They also are often used for lateral bracing of the structural frame, with walls reinforced to be shear diaphragms or with “X” bracing or chevron bracing concealed within their enclosing walls

8 Core location…always center?

9 Willis Tower, Chicago 53,000 net rentable s.f.

10 Empire State Designed for Rapid-Building … 2,768,591s.f. in 410 days? 6,752 s.f. per day! Standard Bay sizes Standard Mullion spacing Stone sizes fit to milling equipment Steel sizes fit to transport/lifting equipment

11 Setbacks change floor plates Meeting zoning required stepping back the building, reducing the number of repeated floors Upper floors consumed by elevators (73 total)

12 End Core location responds to local conditions…view, climate… What looks problematic?

13 Lever House, NYC, Gordon Bunshaft, 1952

14 Multi Core placement for large floor dimensions (<300’)

15 Sendai Mediateque, Ito atomizes the core

16

17 So…if its an office building… Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure High- value corner retail Lower- value streetfront retail

18 …but the tail can’t wag the dog  The corner retail will produce higher rental costs, but will it compromise the 15 floors of building above it?  The street-front retail will tolerate more spatial disruption due to its lower rents, but how much can we intrude on it?

19 Time to consider the cores  coreS?...not just one?  Every floor will need  Elevator access  2 means of egress (elevators won’t count)  Toilets for each gender  Some electrical/telecom space  Some space for ventilation/hvac  Could be a shaft  Could be a fan room

20 A midrise building core Will Paton, final study F2011 men women egress mechelevators

21 Basic organization forms You might generate alternatives in more than one Or the site, or inner organization of the clients enterprise might hint at which is most appropriate Ultimately these begin to form a backbone, an armature to hang the building infrastructure upon.

22 Deploying infrastructure  Building planning is a design stage where the infrastructure elements of the building are located in ways that meet the appropriate codes and delineate space for the primary functions of the building

23 Put these somewhere…in a way that makes the primary functions better  Elevators  Stairways  Entry/Lobby  Toilets  Mechanical/Systems spaces  Circulation elements, corridors, egress paths

24 Know the land  From a building planning perspective, this might mean answering these questions  Where do we enter?  Where should trash and deliveries go?  Does the building have to be phased or planned for an addition?  Which orientation or orientations have the highest value? Which have the lowest?

25 Know a few things about the code  …how to get out in a fire  …how to arrange exits  …how big they have to be  …

26 Egress  Promoter P.T. Barnum is said to have charged people 25 cents to enter a darkened room and “See the Egress.”  Once in the darkened room, the people could only see a dim light over a door with a sign on it saying “This way to the Egress.”  Upon opening the door and walking through they found themselves on the street!  Egress is the term applied to the various means (corridors, stair enclosures, stairs) to be used as a means of escape in the event of a fire or other disaster in the building.

27 Some key IBC Definitions  Area of Refuge: Area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergencies  Corridor: An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit.  Exit: That portion of a means of egress system which is separated from other interior spaces of a building by fire resistance rated construction and opening protectives as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exit access to the exit discharge including exit doors, exit enclosures, exit passageways

28 How Many People?  The IBC offers the choice of two processes for determining the number of people (occupants) in the building.  The first method is to determine the actual number of people in the space.  This is easier to do in a building with fixed seating (auditorium) than in say an open office space where, the density varies over time.  The second method is to refer to the Maximum Floor Area per Occupant table, find your use type, divide the number of gross square feet per occupant in the table into your project’s gross square footage to arrive at the number of occupants in the building, or per floor.

29 Occupant load table …excerpted So our Business Occupancy would take the program area (40,000 s.f.) and divide it by 100 s.f. to determine we have 400 occupants

30 Egress convergence  As the occupants from a floor above exit through lower floors, they don’t impact the exit size for the floor the pass through, but the exit size cannot get smaller.  But when exits converge at a floor, like the ground floor where they leave the building, the occupant load for the ground floor must take into account the occupant load of the floor immediately above.  First floor, 10,000 s.f. = 100 occ from second, 200 occupants

31 How wide does that make the exit?  The IBC reads “The total width of the means of egress in inches shall not be less than the total occupant load served multiplied by” .3 for stairs in unsprinkled buildings .2 for corridors, other egress components in unsprinkled buildings .2 for stairs in sprinkled buildings .15 for other components in sprinkled buildings  So our top floor stair in our unsprinkled example could be no less than 100 x.3 or 30 inches…not nearly wide enough to meet minimums of the IBC or ADA  So the code continues to read “nor less than specified elsewhere in this code” so it let’s itself out of an apparent contradiction

32 Stairways  Two required  Fully enclosed with 2 hour fire rated construction  Minimum stair width 48”  Max stair width without intermediate railing = 5’ Minimum headroom 80” from nosing line  Max height between landings = 12’-0” Minimum depth Of Landing, 48” Max riser 7” Min tread 11” Within 3/8 of same dimension for all steps Max intrusion of door on landing = 7”

33 Stairways …cont’d  Handrail height 34” - 38”  Handrails required both sides. 1-1/4 to 2” dia, 1-1/2” from wall (clear)  Handrails must extend 12” beyond top riser, and one tread (11”min) beyond bottom tread 11” 12”

34 2 exit spacing  Exits cannot be closer than 1/2 the maximum diagonal distance of the floor plate 80 feet 60 feet Diagonal is 100’ long so 1/2 diagonal is 50 feet

35 2 exit spacing So in this example, the exit stairs could not be placed closer than 50 feet apart Maximum travel distances would be for this type ‘B’ building –200 feet without sprinklers –250 feet with sprinklers What would be the maximum stair spacing in a sprinkled type ‘B’ building? 80 feet 60 feet So stair entries must be 50 feet apart, minimum 50 feet

36 Dead End Corridors  A corridor not ending in an exit is considered a dead end corridor  Dead end corridors are limited to 20 feet in length in most occupancies.  In occupancy group B with a sprinkled building, the dead end can be extended to 50 feet long. 20 feet Dead End Ends in an exit Not a dead end

37 On your way to the exit...  DO NOT plan the egress path to exit through another tenants space  DO NOT plan the egress path to exit through storage spaces, kitchens, mechanical rooms…or other high hazard occupancies.  But exiting through a non hazardous accessory space is acceptable, as long as there is a clear path discernable to the exit.

38 Where do we enter?  Prominence  Number of entries  Security  Types  Public  Employee  Service  Shipping/receiving

39 A 150x250 site Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure

40 Zoning setbacks Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure

41 Where do we enter? Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure Possible Service Barrier! No view! Best public/ employee entry Possible employee entry

42 Now you need the insight  If the employees have to clock in, change clothes, and report to the workspace, then the lockers/lunchroom/timeclock need to be near their entrypoint  If they just walk in and go to their workstation, there’s no need for this

43 Now you need the insight  If there is a public/retail first floor, the street-fronts become high value, so putting employee or utility functions there would be counterproductive  If the business ships and receives high volumes of product, then the side-street and alley become high value.  Regardless, we need to keep in mind, trash storage, backup generators, and misc. delivery

44 Example, multi-tenant office bulding  Key issues  Return on investment  High net to gross ratio (what’s that?)  Clear circulation/wayfinding  Maximize value of perimeter glass/views  Allow for street level retail

45 Public/employee sequence dominates… but doesn’t locate elevators Lobby/Rec eption/dire ctory/secur ity Entry/vestib ule retail Double loaded lobby allows two retail tenants Single loaded would allow one larger tenant Challenge might be identity

46 If its an office building… Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure High- value corner retail Lower- value streetfront retail

47 …but the tail can’t wag the dog  The corner retail will produce higher rental costs, but will it compromise the 15 floors of building above it?  The street-front retail will tolerate more spatial disruption due to its lower rents, but how much can we intrude on it?

48 Time to consider the cores  coreS?...not just one?  Every floor will need  Elevator access  2 means of egress (elevators won’t count)  Toilets for each gender  Some electrical/telecom space  Some space for ventilation/hvac  Could be a shaft  Could be a fan room

49 A midrise building core Will Paton, final study F2011 men women egress mechelevators

50 A minimal stair 48 inches between handrails 1.5” handrails (each side) that are 1.5” from the walls So a single run of stairs is 54” wide If the stair runs between 12 foot floors, 12x12=144” of rise divided by max riser 7.0 = 20.5 risers, say 21 at 6.8” or just over 6 and ¾ inches. always one less tread than riser so 20 risers at min dimension of 11 inches so 20x11inches = 220 inches or 18 feet 4 inches of horizontal run, add 6-5 foot landings at the top and bottom if doors open into the stairs) (and, not counting the ARA), the overall inside of the straight run stair is 31’2” x 5’4” wide. now work out a dual run stair.

51 Building Planning … Part II Core strategies

52 Other core responsibilities  Besides housing egress, access, toilets and HVAC, cores often act as the primary space definition elements on a floor.  They also are often used for lateral bracing of the structural frame, with walls reinforced to be shear diaphragms or with “X” bracing or chevron bracing concealed within their enclosing walls

53 Core location

54

55 Lever House, NYC, Gordon Bunshaft, 1952

56 Core location

57 Sendai Mediateque, Ito atomizes the core

58

59 Considering cores… Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure High- value corner retail Lower- value streetfront retail

60 A minimal stair 48 inches between handrails 1.5” handrails (each side) that are 1.5” from the walls So a single run of stairs is 54” wide If the stair runs between 12 foot floors, 12x12=144” of rise divided by max riser 7.0 = 20.5 risers, say 21 at 6.8” or just over 6 and ¾ inches. always one less tread than riser so 20 risers at min dimension of 11 inches so 20x11inches = 220 inches or 18 feet 4 inches of horizontal run, add 6-5 foot landings at the top and bottom if doors open into the stairs) (and, not counting the ARA), the overall inside of the straight run stair is 31’2” x 5’4” wide.

61 Stairways  Two required  Fully enclosed with 2 hour fire rated construction  Minimum stair width 48”  Max stair width without intermediate railing = 5’ Minimum headroom 80” from nosing line  Max height between landings = 12’-0” Minimum depth Of Landing, 48” Max riser 7” Min tread 11” Within 3/8 of same dimension for all steps Max intrusion of door on landing = 7”

62 Stairways …cont’d  Handrail height 34” - 38”  Handrails required both sides. 1-1/4 to 2” dia, 1-1/2” from wall (clear)  Handrails must extend 12” beyond top riser, and one tread (11”min) beyond bottom tread 11” 12”

63 Other core responsibilities  Besides housing egress, access, toilets and HVAC, cores often act as the primary space definition elements on a floor.  They also are often used for lateral bracing of the structural frame, with walls reinforced to be shear diaphragms or with “X” bracing or chevron bracing concealed within their enclosing walls

64 Considering cores… Alley Main Street Easy Street Adjacent structure High- value corner retail Lower- value streetfront retail

65 Chicken or the egg? What sets the core-to-skin distance?

66 How far is it from the core to the skin?

67 Know your typology …what’s that mean?

68 typology meets client culture…meets market…

69 Client Culture, Organization, and Form

70 Market needs inform

71

72

73 Modularity…common denominators… Planning grids Structural grids Lighting grids Power grids Mechanical grids

74 Built from the most common…and smallest acceptable unit of space

75

76

77 Minimum skin to core? 14’ 6’ 10’

78 Minimum structural? 14’ 6’ 10’

79 Check structural capability Steel Frame Cast-in-Place Concrete Frame Precast Frame

80 Steel R.O.T. p.356 Depth of Girders = 1/15 span (width=1/3 to 1/2 depth) Depth of Beams 1/20 span (depth of slab included in composite structures) Depth of bar joists 1/20 span (spacing 2 to 10 feet depending on decking / concrete thickness) Depth of decking and concrete for floors 1/24th of span (2 1/2 to 7 inches typical) Depth of decking for roof 1/40 th of span (1 to 4 inch decking available)

81 Bay proportions… are long girders better? 20’ 40’ Here the girders are spanning 40’ and are framing into the columns and carry the secondary floor beams. This requires W30x108 girders And W16x26 beams With a 5 1/4” slab over the beams that’s 6,400 pounds of steel in this bay 30” 14” for ductwork, lights... 16”

82 Site-Cast-Concrete Systems…Basic flavors  Basically, there are 4 types of slabs an architect chooses from when considering a system for a project.  Slabs are usually flat, can be reinforced to span one way or two ways. Their span usually depends on their depth, but there is a point where the extra concrete in the depth works against the slab due to its weight.  Joist slabs usually can span farther and carry heavier loads because they eliminate concrete not contributing to the slabs strength. (hence the joists) All diagrams from Allen “Architects Studio Companion”

83 One way flat slabs…will it work?  The one way slab spans between beams or columns. It requires a structural bay (spacing between columns in both directions) that is within 20% of being square.  It is usually used for light loading applications where it’s thin structural depth gives a low floor to floor height.  When heavily loaded it requires the beams below the slab, It is more desirable to NOT have these beams as they take additional labor to form and pour.  Costs  25x25 6” 40psf load about $13.80 per sq.ft.  25x25 6” 125psf load about $17.20 per sq.ft. Span min6’ Span max 18’ R.O.T. Slab depth 1/22th of span Postten rot Slab depth 1/40th of span Min thick for 2hr = 5” Min thick for 3hr = 6 1/2”

84 One way joist slabs To address heavier loading conditions, its necessary to remove the concrete that’s acting as dead weight - working against the slab that comes along with an increase in the uniform thickness of a slab. This one way joist slab does just that, using prefab formwork set on a plywood deck voids are formed between the joists which make the slab lighter, and stiffer. The joists bear into beams (called bands ) spanning from column to column. These bands give this system the ability to move columns off the grid, (as long as they still fall under the bands ) allowing for more plan flexibility. Costs –25x25 12” 40psf load about $14.10 per sq.ft. –25x25 12” 125psf load about $16.50 per sq.ft. Span min12’ Span max 45’ R.O.T. Slab depth 1/18th of span Postten rot Slab depth 1/36th of span Min thick for 2hr = 5” Min thick for 3hr = 6 1/2” Joist Slab Joist band (beam) void

85 Standard Spanning elements  Solid slabs  Hollow core slabs  Double tees  Rectangular beam  “L” beams  “T” beams

86  Each piece is numbered for location according to the shop drawings.  This producer also dates each piece to be certain only fully cured components are installed Castellated joint

87 Hollow Core slabs  Like sitecast slabs, when the depth of a solid slab increases past a certain point, the extra weight of the concrete works against the spanning member.  In precast, the hollow core slab, removes unemployed concrete increasing the structural efficiency of the slab. Unlike the solid slab, the hollow core slab is reinforced with prestressing strands in the top and bottom of the slab.

88 Spanning  The hollows are made in different ways by different companies. Some have expanding air cylinders, some use pea gravel laid in the bottom half of the pour. Span max45’ Widths2’-0”, 3’-4”, 4’-0”, 8’-0” Span / Depth ratio 1/40 Min produced depth 6” (2” increments) Max produced depth 12” Cost per s.f. topped $12.50 Cost per s.f. untopped $10.50

89 aka the plank  Like the solid slab, the hollow core slab ( also known as the hollow core plank ) has castellated joints to form shear keys when filled with grout.  This helps the planks work together and increases structural efficiency.  Like other precast systems when used as floors, the hollow core plank needs a topping slab (2” or so) to level out the camber differences, make a diaphragm for lateral resistance, and make a place for electrical and hot water heating utilities.

90 Long beams, short planks or long planks short beams? One way 20’ 40’ 2’-8” 8” 3’-4”

91 The longer a beam spans, the deeper it must be. While the plank stays pretty much the same. (the number of prestensioned strands increases) In this example, say the beam span is 20 feet, the rule of thumb of d=1/15 s gives 20/15=1’-4” deep. The plank spans 40 feet here and which gives an 12” plank. This makes a 2’-4” deep structural sandwich 40’ 20’

92 40’ 20’ 1’-4” 12” 2’-4” That’s a FOOT thinner! In a 8 story building it gives the owner an extra floor for FREE! So bay size has a LOT to do with structural depth, which has a significant impact on the projects economics!

93 Beams & floor to floor heights …look familiar? Supporting the spanning member on top of the beam adds to the floor to floor height, but, if the spanning member on top of the beam is a single or double tee, the space between the top flange and bottom of the stem is available for ductwork to pass over the beam with no conflict! Duct Space! Duct

94 Mechanical Planning Is mostly about providing ventilation …and cooling …with big…noisy…machines You can choose to Centralize or Decentralize the air handling machinery in the building Centralized: Big vert shafts Decentralized: Mech rooms each floor Hybrid

95 If Shafts…plan for trunks Don’t trap shafts behind elevators and stairs Trunk ducts are the main ducts that emerge from the shafts Since they serve large areas of floorspace, they contain lots of air and are bigger than distribution ducts

96 If Shafts…plan for trunks Plan return ducts to run inboard of supply…supply has to be delivered to the building skin, returns can be interior

97 Structure & trunk ducts Plan a short structural span next to the core if possible, it makes for a thinner structural section to allow trunk ducts to pass Short span long span

98 Put it all together… Seeking modularity You’re looking for the common denominators Is the smallest space an increment of the largest? Will the smallest plus a circulation path be modular with the most frequently found space increment? Is the structure an increment of the smallest and largest spaces? Remember.. Grids don’t need to be uniform Core functions can be environmental buffers Smaller grids spacing makes for shallower structure, very helpful if coordinated with maximum ductwork depth Mechanical zones are usually functional, environmental or some combination of the two. Ductwork is best run over circulation spaces, it gives better acoustic isolation.


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