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Chocolate. History Commonly believed to have originated in the Aztec culture, but actually comes from the Olmecs who lived in a tropical area on the Gulf.

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Presentation on theme: "Chocolate. History Commonly believed to have originated in the Aztec culture, but actually comes from the Olmecs who lived in a tropical area on the Gulf."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chocolate

2 History Commonly believed to have originated in the Aztec culture, but actually comes from the Olmecs who lived in a tropical area on the Gulf of Mexico Earliest known cacao plantations were formed between 1500 and 400 B.C. Originally grown for the white fruit of the cacao pod, the Mayans discovered that a bitter drink (called cacahuatl) could be made by grinding and mixing the beans with water

3 Used as a form of currency by the peoples of Central and South America between the years AD 1000 and 1200 The beverage was reserved only for nobles, priests, and those in high power, as it was thought to have special restorative and aphrodisiac powers Chocolate was first introduced to Europe by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés Brought the cocoa beans and tools to make chocolate back with him in 1528, after failing to find the Aztec gold he was originally looking for History

4 Chocolate was kept secret by the Spaniards until 1606 when Italian merchant Antonio Carletti brought the chocolate drink to Italy Introduced to the French court after Spanish princess Anne of Austria married Louis XIII Was a status symbol in Paris and drunk only by the aristocracy and those part of high society First London chocolate shop opened in 1657, making chocolate more widely available to all levels of society History

5 Chocolate was finally introduced to North America in the 18 th century First sophisticated chocolate factory was established in Switzerland by Francois-Louis Cailler, whose Swiss chocolate is the oldest brand still in existence Cailler’s son-in-law, Daniel Peter, created the first milk chocolate in 1875 First boxed individual chocolates were introduced in the 1800s by the Cadbury chocolate company Sechaud Fils created the first filled chocolates in 1913, and in the 1930s the first white chocolate was created by Henri Nestle History

6 Couverture is a very high quality chocolate with 32 to 39% cocoa butter The overall % is based on the amount of coco mass and coco butter Only a small number of chocolates are considered premium couvertures The term is protected by Swiss law and is defined as “chocolate for the pastry shop” Couverture

7 Tempering is an important technique to use when working with chocolate Tempered chocolate refers to chocolate that has been melted and cooled in a controlled environment Successful tempering will produce chocolate with a high gloss, resistant to warmth, pleasant aroma, smooth mouthfeel, longer shelf life, good snap, and contraction Unsuccessful tempering will result in chocolate with an uneven and streaky appearance (also called ‘fat bloom’), visible spots on the surface, a dull and matte appearance, and a texture that is soft to the bite or an unpleasant and crumbly texture Tempering

8 There are three common methods of tempering chocolate: the direct method, the seeding method, and the tabling method Tempering method does not matter, as all should produce the same end result Tempering Methods

9 Tempering done by melting solid chocolate to the proper temperature without taking it out of temper Temperature required depends on the type of chocolate being tempered Chocolate melted at a higher temperature than suggested will force the chocolate out of temper and cause a gray, uneven surface IDEAL WORKING TEMPERATURES Milk chocolate 86 o – 88 o F White chocolate 84 o – 86 o F Dark chocolate 88 o – 90 o F Direct Method

10 Commonly used heat sources: oven, microwave, or water bath Other possible sources: tempering machine, chocolate melter, chocolate cabinet, or directly over flame Direct Method

11 Oven: Place chocolate in an ovenproof container Place container in oven and leave for 12 hours until the chocolate is melted Microwave: Warm chocolate in microwave safe container in intervals of 20 seconds or less, stirring chocolate at each interval Remove from microwave before all chocolate is melted, continue stirring until chocolate is smooth and there are no lumps left Test chocolate by dipping the edge of a piece of paper or a scraper into chocolate and letting it sit. Properly tempered chocolate will start to set evenly throughout within a minute Direct Method

12 Water bath: Place water in bottom half of double boiler Place chocolate in top half of double boiler and heat over medium heat Occasionally stir chocolate gently until melted to desired temperature Direct Method

13 Seeding method can be used at any time or place, as only minimal equipment is required Procedure: Prepare the seeding chocolate by grating it in a food processor (not necessary, but the large the seeding pieces, the longer it will take to melt and cool the chocolate Warm milk or white chocolate to 110 o – 115 o F and dark chocolate to 115 o – 120 o F. Let chocolate cool down a little before adding the seeding chocolate Gradually add the coins or grated chocolate, stirring gently to incorporate and distribute the added chocolate without adding a lot of air When added chocolate has stopped melting, check temperature and proceed according to that temperature Seeding Method

14 If chocolate is still above the ideal temperature, add more seeds and stir gently. When proper temperature is reached, test to make sure chocolate is tempered by using the previous mentioned test If chocolate is below the ideal temperature, use an immersion blender to melt the pieces down and get a nice smooth consistency, and then test chocolate to make sure it is tempered properly Seeding Method

15 Tabling method is the fastest and most efficient way to temper smaller amounts of chocolate Requires a stone or marble slab and good hand skills Marble or stone slab draws the heat out and away from chocolate without being too hot itself Procedure: Warm chocolate to proper temperature Poor two-thirds of melted chocolate onto the marble and spread the chocolate over marble with an offset spatula With offset spatula in one hand and triangular spatula in the other, move or scrape chocolate toward the center with the triangular spatula Remove excess chocolate from triangular spatula with offset spatula Continue repeating steps until all chocolate has been moved to the center Scrape chocolate off of table immediately into the remaining 1/3 of chocolate and stir gently Test to see if chocolate is tempered Tabling Method

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