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(Just a Few) Recent Discoveries in the Lands of the Bible Mark Durham.

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Presentation on theme: "(Just a Few) Recent Discoveries in the Lands of the Bible Mark Durham."— Presentation transcript:

1 (Just a Few) Recent Discoveries in the Lands of the Bible Mark Durham

2 David by Michelangelo

3 “Go tell the troops to expect Shepard’s pie tonight.” David & Goliath

4 “Play it again Dave--- but softly.” David & Saul… BAR. Sept-Oct 2010

5 1) Bible authenticity largely revolves around David (and Solomon) 2) Minimalists claim he didn’t exist, or 3) Minimalists move him into a low Chronology (more recent)… 4) Believers say David gives credence to the modern claim-to- exist by Israel Why is David so Important in Archaeology? Israel Finkelstein

6 Merneptah Victory Stele  First mention of “Israel” outside of the Bible: “Israel is laid waste, his seed is not”  This engraved granite slab is more than seven feet tall and was found in Western Thebes, Egypt  It was carved c. 1208 BC and is now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. PHOTO: ©Greg Gulbrandsen

7 Mesha Stele or Moabite Stele Discovered by Charles Warren, 1868-70 (100 X 60 X 60 cm basalt) in modern Jordan Victory stele For King Mesha of Moab,~840 BC, making it the oldest possible reference to David In Moabite language; Line 12 appears to reference a captured "altar hearth of David" at Ataroth 2 Kings 3 tells how Israel and Judah allied with Edom to fight losing battle against Mesha of Moab

8 King David in Archaeology  TELL DAN STELA  This Inscribed monument contains the oldest known reference to King "David" outside of the Bible. 800-845 BC  **See Replica**

9 David’s Palace Confirmed! Jerusalem: Historical Section David's Palace is located in the bottom right of this map in the City of David.

10 City of David with Millo & Palace

11 King David in Archaeology : City of David

12 City of David, now

13 City of David now See David’s Palace (Large Stone Structure) See Millo (Stepped Stone Structure)

14 City of David Research Archaeologists Eilat Mazar Kathleen Kenyon

15 Millo, or Stepped Stone Structure These support steps lead directly up to David’s Palace, which had yet to be excavated when this photograph was taken

16 Millo, or Stepped Stone Structure

17 Millo or Stepped Stone Structure

18 King David’s Palace-Unearthed City of David (Jerusalem) Aka Large Stone Structure, sits atop Stepped Stone Structure Excavations underway by Eilat Mazar’s team

19 King David’s Palace--Jerusalem  An architectural reconstruction of David’s Phoenician-built palace  Constructed after his conquest of Jerusalem in 10 th century B.C. in the City of David

20 David’s Palace & Stepped Stone Structure

21 “My, they build things fast these days! Seems like that tower went up overnight since you moved in, Bathsheba!” David & Bathsheba BAR. Mar/Apr 2007

22  No ordinary household, Mazar says, would have carved ivory, but a royal palace likely would. Ivory Utensils of David’s Palace

23 Clay Bullae of City of David Seal Impressions discovered by Eilat Mazar Mentioned in Jeremiah 38:1–13 Shows strong agreement between archaeology and Bible “Gedalyahu [Gedaliah] ben Pashur”“Yehuchal [or Jehucal] ben Shelemyahu”

24  An elegant proto-Aeolic capital suggestive of royal Iron Age architecture found by Kathleen Kenyon. Capital from David’s Palace

25  Critics/Minimalists find it difficult to deny the Tel Dan stela inscription as being strong evidence of David’s existence.  Instead they relegate David’s influence to being only a local chieftain ruling a small territory.  They believe that a lack of evidence of many Hebrew cities and fortifications in Judah proves that David’s reign was insignificant, even if kingdoms were united as Israel.  However, new archaeological discoveries are giving us significant evidence of King David as a powerful ruler! Current State of Biblical Credibility

26 Khirbet Quiyafa Newly Discovered City Confirmed in Southern Kingdom of Judah! From King David’s time: 1020-980 BC Elah Valley, Guarded Road from coastal Philistia to Jerusalem 100 ac. urban center/military stronghold Bible places battle of David & Goliath (of Gath) very near here Likely Biblical city of Sha’arayim Khirbet Quiyafa

27  ~6 acres heavily fortified city surrounded by a casement wall  One-period Iron Age site with two 4-chambered gates  2013 find--a multi-story admin. building centered on the acropolis Khirbet Quiyafa

28  Structural Foundations of David’s Administrative Building, and later (smaller) Byzantine building  Byzantine period 5 th to 15 th centuries, AD Khirbet Quiyafa Two Buildings From Different Times

29  Potshard, writing on inside of pottery vessel.  Oldest known Hebrew text ever discovered (1,000 years older than Dead Sea Scrolls! Kherbet Quiyafa Ostracon The Khirbet Qeiyafa Ostracon

30  Proto-Hebrew Script  Some letters flipped (might be due to someone trying to write upside down)  Minimalists argue that site therefore must have been Philistine. Kherbet Quiyafa Ostracon

31  Found near Khirbet Qumran: part of the Dead Sea Scrolls  One of the most intriguing, and baffling scrolls to be found among the collection  Describes vast amounts of (Temple?) treasure hidden at many sites  4,630 talents (58-174 tons) of gold and silver are listed on the scroll Mystery of the Copper Scrolls

32  Nine tiny tefillin (phylactery) scrolls had been overlooked — until now  Were placed in storage by IAA since 1952  Scrolls were in phylacteries of 2 nd Temple Period  Revealed by CT scan New Dead Sea Scrolls Find Shai Halevi via Israel Antiquities Authority

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