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**高等輸送二 — 質傳 Lecture 1 Diffusion in dilute solutions**

郭修伯 助理教授

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**Mass transfer Convection Diffusion**

Free convection and forced convection Diffusion diffusion is caused by random molecular motion that leads to complete mixing. in gases, diffusion progresses at a rate of about 10 cm/min; in liquid, its rate is about 0.05 cm/min; in solids, its rate may be only about cm/min less sensitive to temperature than other phenomena

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Diffusion When it is the slowest step in the sequence, it limits the overall rate of the process: commercial distillations rate of reactions using porous catalysts speed with which the human intestine absorbs nutrients the growth of microorganisms producing penicillin rate of the corrosion of steel the release of flavor from food Dispersion (different from diffusion) the dispersal of pollutants

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**Understand diffusion? What is Diffusion? How to study diffusion?**

process by which molecules, ions, or other small particles spontaneously mix, moving from regions of relatively high concentration into regions of lower concentration How to study diffusion? Scientific description: By Fick’s law and a diffusion coefficient Engineering description: By a mass transfer coefficient

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**Models for diffusion Mass transfer: define the flux**

Two models (from assumptions!) Fick’s law Mass transfer coefficient model

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Models The choice between the mass transfer and diffusion models is often a question of taste rather than precision. The diffusion model more fundamental and is appropriate when concentrations are measured or needed versus both position and time The mass transfer model simpler and more approximate and is especially useful when only average concentrations are involved.

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**Diffusion in dilute solutions**

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**Diffusion in dilute solutions**

Diffusion in dilute solutions are frequently encountered diffusion in living tissue almost always involves the transport of small amounts of solutes like salts, antibodies, enzymes, or steroids. Two cases are studied steady-state diffusion across a thin film basic to membrane transport unsteady-state diffusion into a infinite slab the strength of welds the decay of teeth

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**Early work in diffusion**

Thomas Graham (University of Glasgow) diffusion of gases (1828 ~ 1833); constant pressure The flux by diffusion is proportional to the concentration difference of the salt water stucco（灰泥）plug glass tube diffusion gas air hydrogen Apparatus for liquids

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Adolf Eugen Fick (~1855) Diffusion can be described on the same mathematical basis as Fourier’s law for heat conduction or Ohm’s law for electrical conduction One dimensional flux: Paralleled Fourier’s conservation equation area across which diffusion occurs concentration distance the flux per unit area diffusion coefficient Fick’s second law: one-dimensional unsteady-state diffusion

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**Steady diffusion across a thin film**

On each side of the film is a well-mixed solution of one solute, c10 > c1l c10 c1l z l z Mass balance in the layer z rate of diffusion out of the layer at z + z rate of diffusion into the layer at z Solute accumulation = s.s.

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**l c10 c1l z Dividing A z B.C. z = 0, c1 = c10 z = l, c1 = c1l**

linear concentration profile z 0 c10 c1l z l z Since the system is in s.s., the flux is a constant.

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Derive the concentration profile and the flux for a single solute diffusing across a thin membrane. The membrane is chemically different from the solutions. Similar to the previous slide, a steady-state mass balance gives: c10 c1l H B.C. z = 0, c1 = HC10 z = l, c1 = HC1l Different boundary conditions are used; where H is a partition coefficient. This implies that equilibrium exists across the membrane surface. Solute diffuses from the solution into the membrane. 10 1l chemical potential: driving force

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**[DH] is called the permeability**

[DH] is called the permeability. The partition coefficient H is found to vary more widely than the diffusion coefficient D, so differences in diffusion tend to be less important than the difference in solubility.

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**No longer one-dimensional**

Derive the concentration profile and the flux for a single solute diffusing across a micro-porous layer. Micro-porous layer No longer one-dimensional Effective diffusion coefficient is used Homogeneous membrane Micro-porous layer Deff = f (solute, solvent, local geometry)

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**Membrane diffusion with fast reaction**

A solute is diffusing steadily across a thin membrane, it can rapidly and reversibly react with other immobile solutes fixed with the membrane. Derive the solute’s flux. A mass balance for reactant 1 gives: rate of diffusion out of the layer at z + z rate of diffusion into the layer at z Solute accumulation = rate of consumption by reaction s.s A mass balance for (immobile) product 2 gives: The reaction has no effect.

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Diaphragm（隔板） cell Two well-stirred volumes separated by a thin porous barrier or diaphragm. The diaphragm is often a sintered glass frit/ a piece of filter paper. Calculate the diffusion coefficient when the concentrations of the two volumes as a function of time are known. Well-stirred solutions

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**Pseudo steady-state for membrane diffusion**

Assuming the flux across the diaphragm quickly reaches its steady-state value, although the concentrations in the upper and lower compartments are changing with time: Pseudo steady-state for membrane diffusion H includes the fraction of the diaphragm’s area that is available for diffusion. Overall mass balance on the adjacent compartments A is the diaphragm’s area

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**Find the flux across a thin film in which diffusion varies sharply (i**

Find the flux across a thin film in which diffusion varies sharply (i.e., the diffusion coefficient is not a constant). Assume that below some critical concentration c1c, diffusion is fast, but above this concentration it is suddenly much slower. l left c10 c1c c1l zc right large diffusion coefficient small diffusion coefficient The flux is the same across both films:

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**Skin diffusion p1,gas p2,gas p2,tissue p1,tissue p1i concentration**

Skin behaves as if it consists of two layers, each of which has a different gas permeability. Explain how these two layers can lead to the rashes observed. Assuming that the gas pressure is in equilibrium with the local concentration: p1+p2 p1,gas lA+lB p2,gas p2,tissue p1,tissue A B gas outside the body p1i concentration gas pressure For layer A, For layer B, The flux through layer A equals that through layer B :

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**Unsteady diffusion in a semiinfinite slab - free diffusion**

Any diffusion problem will behave as if the slab is infinitely thick at short enough times. At time zero, the concentration at z = 0 suddenly increases to c10 c10 Mass balance on the thin layer Az rate of diffusion out of the layer at z + z rate of diffusion into the layer at z Solute accumulation = time c1 position z

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Boundary conditions Dividing A z z 0 Fick’s second law

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**Free diffusion with fast reaction**

A solute is diffusing steadily across a semiinfinite slab, it can rapidly and reversibly react with other immobile solutes fixed within the slab. Derive the solute’s flux. A mass balance for reactant 1 gives: rate of diffusion out of the layer at z + z rate of diffusion into the layer at z Solute accumulation = rate of generation by reaction For a first-order reaction Use to replace D The reaction has left the mathematical form of the answer unchanged, but it has altered the diffusion coefficient.

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**If the same B.C.s are used:**

Without reaction With first-order fast reaction

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A sharp pulse of solute The initial sharp concentration gradient relaxes by diffusion in the z direction into the smooth curves. Calculate the shape of these curves. Mass balance on the differential volume Az rate of diffusion out of this volume rate of diffusion into this volume Solute accumulation in Az = Position z z Dividing A z z 0

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Boundary conditions far from the pulse, the solute concentration is zero at z = 0, the flux has the same magnitude in the positive and negative directions all the solute is initially located at z = 0 A: the cross-sectional area over which diffusion is occurring M: the total amount of solute in the system (z): the Dirac function (length)-1

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**z and c1 are independent variables**

Apply Laplace Transform to solve and z and c1 are independent variables Laplace transform Second order linear O.D.E. s regards as constant

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**Gaussian curve The boundary condition: Laplace transform**

inverse transform Gaussian curve

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**The steady dissolution of a spherical particle**

The sphere is of a sparingly soluble material, so that the sphere’s size does not change much. However, the material quickly dissolves in the surrounding solvent, so that solute’s concentration at the sphere’s surface is saturated. The sphere is immersed in a very large fluid volume, the concentration far from the sphere is zero. Find the dissolution rate and the concentration profile around the sphere. Mass balance on a spherical shell of thickness r located at r from the sphere: r rate of diffusion out of the shell rate of diffusion into the shell Solute accumulation within the shell = s.s

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**Boundary conditions Example: Dividing 4r2r r 0**

The growth of fog droplets and the dissolution of drugs

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**The diffusion of a solute into the cylinder **

The cylinder initially contains no solute. At time zero, it is suddenly immersed in a well-stirred solution that is of such enormous volume that its solute concentration is constant. The solute diffuses into the cylinder symmetrically. Find the solute’s concentration in this cylinder as a function of time and location. Mass balance on a cylindrical shell of thickness r located at r from the central axis: rate of diffusion out of the shell rate of diffusion into the shell Solute accumulation within the shell = z r

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Dividing 2rLr Boundary conditions r 0

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Dimensionless:

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**Using the method of “Separation of variables”**

Assume: Using the method of “Separation of variables” … Please refer to my lecture note number 8 for the “applied mathematics”.

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**Diffusion across a thin, moving liquid film **

The concentrations on both sides of this film are fixed by electrochemical reactions, but the film itself is moving steadily. Direction of diffusion Assumptions: the liquid is dilute the liquid is the only resistance to mass transfer diffusion in the z direction convection in the x direction z x c10 c1l control volume Mass balance on a control volume W x z : rate of diffusion in the x direction rate of diffusion in the z direction Solute accumulation in Wxz = moving liquid film

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s.s. Dividing Wx z Neither c1 nor vx change with x x 0 z 0 B.C. The flow has no effect!

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**Diffusion into a falling film **

A thin liquid film flows slowly and without ripples down a flat surface. One side of this film wets the surface; the other side is in contact with a gas, which is sparingly soluble in the liquid. Find how much gas dissolve in the liquid. Assumptions: the liquid is dilute the contact between gas and liquid is short diffusion in the z direction convection in the x direction solute gas z x l control volume Mass balance on a control volume W x z : rate of diffusion in the x direction rate of diffusion in the z direction Solute accumulation in Wxz = Liquid with dissolved solute gas

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s.s. Dividing Wx z x 0 z 0 vx ~ constant B.C.

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What we have done are: 1. We write a mass balance as a differential equation 2. Combine this with Fick’s law 3. Integrate this to find the desired result For thin film For thick slab Fourier Number Much larger than unity …………. Assume a semiinfinite slab Much less than unity ..…Assume a steady state or an equilibrium Approximately unity ……..………. Used to estimate the process

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Example: Hydrogen has penetrated about 0.1 cm into nickel, D = 10-8 cm2/sec, estimate the operation time of the process. Approximately 10 days.

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