Presentation on theme: "An International Perspective on the New European Standards and CE Marking in the Stone Sector The Natural Stone & Building Conservation Conference 2008."— Presentation transcript:
An International Perspective on the New European Standards and CE Marking in the Stone Sector The Natural Stone & Building Conservation Conference th March - ExCel - London Paola BLASI – IMM Carrara
Up to 2001, in Europe, the main standards concerning natural stone were German (DIN), British (BSI) and French (AFNOR).. Today, the scenario is completely different, since new European standards (EN) are available on the market.
According to the European Construction Products Directive CPD 89/106, construction products can be placed on the market only if they are suitable for the intended use. mechanical resistance and stability safety in case of fire safety in case of fire hygiene, health and the environment hygiene, health and the environment safety in use safety in use protection against the noise protection against the noise energy economy and heat retention energy economy and heat retention That is to say, if they have such characteristics that the works in which they are to be incorporated, assembled, applied, can, if properly designed and built, satisfy the following essential requirements:
The CPD is now under revision. It will be substituted by a REGULATION! It is compulsory It is a national law No need to be adopted
There are four CEN Technical Committees drafting standards for natural stones in the framework of the CPD and related interpretative documents: CEN TC 125 Masonry CEN TC 128 Roof covering products for discontinuous laying CEN TC 128 Roof covering products for discontinuous laying CEN TC 246 Natural Stones CEN TC 246 Natural Stones CEN TC 178 Paving units and kerbs CEN TC 178 Paving units and kerbs
EUROPEAN STANDARDS FOR STONE PRODUCTS Semi-finished productsFinished products EN 1467 Rough BlocksEN 1469 Slabs for Cladding EN 1468 Rough SlabsEN Slabs for Floors and Stairs EN Modular Tiles prEN Dimensional Stone Work (to be published) EN 1341 Slabs of NS for External Paving EN 1342 Setts of NS for External Paving EN 1343 Kerbs of NS for External Paving EN Elements for Discontinuous Roofing EN rev Masonry Units
EN Modular tiles Flat piece of natural stone square or rectangular in standard sizes, normally <=610mm obtained by cutting or splitting at a nominal thickness <= 12 mm EN Slabs for floors and stairs Flat piece of natural stone obtained by cutting or splitting at a nominal thickness >12 mm. It is laid on to a structure by means of mortar, adhesives or other supporting elements EN 1469 Slabs for cladding Slab cut to size which forms a wall covering and ceiling finishes for outside or inside use, fixed to a structure either mechanically or by means of mortar or adhesives
EN Slabs for floors and stairs – Tolerances on the nominal thickness >12 mm and = 15 mm ⇨ ± 1,5 mm >15 mm and = 30 mm ⇨ ± 10% >30 mm and = 80 mm ⇨ ± 3 mm >80 mm ⇨ ± 5 mm EN 1469 Slabs for cladding – Tolerances on the nominal thickness >12 mm and = 30 mm ⇨ ± 10% >30 mm and = 80 mm ⇨ ± 3 mm >80 mm ⇨ ± 5 mm
EN Not calibrated modular tiles – Tolerances length and width ⇨ ± 1 mm thickness ⇨ ± 1.5 mm flatness ⇨ 0.15% squareness ⇨ 0.15% EN Calibrated modular tiles – Tolerances length and width ⇨ ± 0.5 mm thickness ⇨ ± 0.5 mm flatness ⇨ 0.10% squareness ⇨ 0.10%
STANDARDS FOR TERMINOLOGY EN Denomination CriteriaEN Terminology Criteria for the designation of natural stone from raw material to finished products. An informative annex provides a non- exhaustive provisional list of the names under which most stones from each contributing European country are known. A glossary of scientific and technical terms used to designate stones, test methods, products and the classification of natural stones. NS will receive a description including: traditional name scientific name typical colour place of origin additional information (if available or if agreed between buyer and seller) e.g.: STATUARIO VENATO marble white with grey veins Carrara (MS – Tuscany), Italy The glossary has been dived into geological, quarrying, processing, products and installation terms. e.g.: block cutter: sawing machine consisting of a horizontal diamond disk and a series of vertical diamond disks, used for the production of standard-sized DS; shop drawing: detailed drawing showing dimensions, location, finishing and anchoring system, which may be used by the fabricator to draw up a cut sheet.
TEST METHODS 1/2 GeometricPetrographicDurabilityTechnological EN Determination of dimensions of masonry units EN Petrographic examination EN Determination of resistance to salt crystallization EN Determination of abrasion resistance EN Determination of frost resistance EN Determination of flatness of faces of masonry units EN Determination of resistance to ageing by thermal shockEN Determination of slip coefficient EN Determination of geometric characteristics on units EN Determination of resistance to ageing by salt mist
PHYSICAL – MECHANICAL TEST METHODS 2/2 EN Determination of compressive strength of masonry units EN Determination of real and bulk density and of total and open porosity for natural stone masonry units EN :2000/A1 Determination of water absorption of masonry units due to capillarity EN 1925 Determination of water absorption coefficient by capillarity EN 1926 Determination of compressive strength EN 1936 Determination of real density and apparent density and of total and open porosity EN Determination of flexural strength under concentrated load EN Determination of flexural resistance (under constant moment) EN Determination of the breaking load at the dowel hole EN Determination of water absorption at atmospheric pressure EN Determination of dynamic modulus of elasticity (by fundamental resonance frequency) EN Determination of rupture energy EN Determination of Knoop hardness EN Determination of the sound speed propagation EN Determination of static elastic modulus EN Determination of thermal expansion coefficient
This is therefore a dramatic change for the European stone sector, resulting in the suppression of any technical barrier to the free trade and to the exchange of stone material. As the new standards are gradually enforced, all CEN countries shall lend them the status of national legislation and repeal any contrasting national standard.
In some cases, the national standards are still in used since the European are considered not reliable (e.g.: EN – Determination of frost resistance) Is it truth? The denomination of the materials is still not clear The countries can introduce national obligations [e.g.: release of dangerous substances (radioactivity)] Some standards are still missing
Another important innovation, that is changing the current commercial customs of the stone industry, is the enforcement of the CE marking for all the products covered by the “Mandates”. The product standards covered by these mandates are defined as Harmonised, while those not included are Voluntary. The main Mandates issued by the European Commission dealing with stone products are: M119 “Flooring” M121 “Wall and ceiling finishes”
All the product standards have the same structure: introduction introduction (field of application, normative references, glossary) requirements requirements (geometrical requirements and requirements on raw materials) evaluation of conformity (initial type testing and factory production control)
Product standards can be supplemented by one or more (normative or informative) Annexes. Compliance with these requirements gives a ‘presumption of fitness’ for the intended use to all the products covered by that standard, which shall therefore bear the CE marking. The distinction between Harmonised and Voluntary classes of standard consists in the presence of the Annex ZA, which is included only in the former ones. Annex ZA specifies which clauses of the standard are applicable to the provisions of the CPD (essential characteristics).
What does the CE marking mean ? It certifies that the product complies with the essential requirements laid down by the CPD. The companies will have to submit their product to a whole series of inspections, consisting both of a set of initial tests and controls on production in their plants. Every stone company shall, therefore, set up a factory production control system within its plant, to ensure that the quality of its finished products keeps up with the levels found during the initial type tests. What will the enforcement of the CE marking involve for the business?
container with a bed of silica steel sphere electromagnet graduated metal stick test specimen FPC - Equipment for the determination of rupture energy by impact
FPC - Equipment for the not conventional determination of flexural strength
CE Marking The CE marking is now a reality, but most of the European companies are still ignoring it. The stone characterisation has always been considered “not essential”, mainly because in the past the performance and durability of the materials available in the market were quite well known. Stone testing is essential for all the new materials entering the international market in order to avoid improper stone uses.
Manufacturers of artificial materials are, on the opposite side, very keen to test their products and to compare the results with those of NS. WATER ABSORPTIONMAN-MADE STONEQUARRY STONE travertine Navona0,08%1,77% marble Rosa Portogallo0,09%0,11% granite Kashmir White0,05%0,46% FLEXURAL RESISTANCEMAN-MADE STONEQUARRY STONE travertine Navona52,88 N/mm 2 14,78 N/mm 2 marble Rosa Portogallo63,39 N/mm 2 14,81 N/mm 2 granite Kashmir White54,48 N/mm 2 14,78 N/mm 2 RESISTANCE TO DEEP ABRASIONMAN-MADE STONEQUARRY STONE travertine Navona135,40 mm 3 513,24 mm 3 marble Rosa Portogallo138,05 mm 3 561,51 mm 3 granite Kashmir White137,25 mm 3 169,85 mm 3
IMM has published a technical guide to assist the stone companies in the CE marking application On sale at
Other technical guide have been published or are going to be published in the different European countries
Example of CE marking of modular tiles for external cladding Year: 08Reference Standard: EN Product: Natural stone tiles for cladding Denomination of the stone accordino to EN 12440: Traditional name: Bianco di Lorano Petrografic name: marble Origin: Carrara (Massa Carrara, Italia) Use: external cladding Name and address of producer: yyyy CharacteristicsDeclared valuesTesting method Reaction to fireClass A1Without testing (see Decision 96/603 CE) Flexural strengthLower expected value 10,5 MPa Mean value 12,5 MPa Standard deviation 1,0MPa EN Frost resistanceChange in mean flexural strength after 12 cycles: 3% EN Water vapour permeabilityNPDEN ISO or EN Thermal shock resistanceNPDEN Apparent bulk densityfrom 2660 to 2680 kg/m 3 EN 1936
Specific meetings are now held with the support of the national stone associations. Next meeting in Würzburg (Germany) on 21st April 2008 There is the need to harmonise the way in which the single European countries are introducing the CE marking in their market.
Marking is compulsory and is referred to the CE marking. This implies conformity to the CPD. It is not a quality mark. For this reason the data declared in the CE declaration of conformity are indicative only, that is the characteristics of the material can be better of what declared. As a consequence in case of special applications, the suitability of the stone must be determined from a specific analysis. Mark is voluntary and can be referred to the quality or the origin of the material (or to both of them). There is some confusion between the terms mark and marking:
Many Italian suppliers, individually or within local associations, have decided to register the trade names of their materials in order to guarantee their origin and to promote their quality. PIETRA PIASENTINA ® BASALTITE® BASALTINA ®
Registered trade mark owned by the Italian Association ASSOMARMI for the promotion of the natural stone. It can be given to all the products containing stone as a characteristic of the material. The company must pay a licence fee and respect a moral code. The proceeds are utilised for promotional campaigns.
Registered trade and collective mark owned by EUROROC (European & International Federation of Natural Stone Industries). It cannot be given to agglomerated stones or not completely natural stones.
Lloyds of London ( ) The British leadership in design meets the Italian leadership in NS production and management of stone projects
Stansted Airport Terminal (1991) MAA 1993 (Marble Architectural Awards)
10 Ludgate Place, London (1992) MAA 1993
Broadgate, London MAA 1993
The New Millennium A new age in which the competition in the NS sector is very high. Europe is not the only player anymore! The European role is more and more limited to the special products. The British leadership in design continues to stimulate the NS industry!
Portcullis House London (2001)
British Museum, London (2001) MAA 2006
City Hall, London (2002)
30 Finsbury Square, London (2002)
Paternoster Square, London 2004
Plantation Place, London 2005
The Mcdonald St Paul’s Hotel Sheffield (2003)
Sedley Place – Oxford St, London ( ) MAA 2006
Sedley Place – Oxford St London ( ) MAA 2006
In the nanotechnology age, NS is becoming a component of more complex products capable of being easily integrated in the buildings. There is still a lot of room for the traditional use of NS, especially if adequate services of installation and maintenance are guaranteed, but the research must continue towards new products. As a consequence, traditional and new products must be supported by adequate standards in order to be able to meet the real market requirements. It would be important for the future of the European stone sector to establish new and more consolidated relationships with the building industry.