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Plant balance and crop steering By André Kool, consultant Green Q.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant balance and crop steering By André Kool, consultant Green Q."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant balance and crop steering By André Kool, consultant Green Q

2 Index Plant = factory Roots, Irrigation, Substrate Fotosynthesis, LAI, CO 2 Climate Crop planning

3 How does the plant grow? Radiation CO2 Feeding Water (plant) temperature humidity

4 Plant = factory Head = new development, future Leaves = factory producing assimilates Stem = pipeline (logistics) Roots entrance = mouth of the plant Fruits = storage of assimilates

5 A strong root system Plant  Roots  Substrate  Water management Stimulate root growth to absorb optimal water and fertilizers.

6 Water management Start time Stop time Shot lenght Decrease of water content Amount of gift and drain EC drip and drain pH drip and drain

7 Water management before planting on hole Nursery / next hole Stategy for 10 x 10 cm blocks ( 1 plant per block) Before flowering first truss block weight g. When flowering slightly more water ( g) 100 cc irrigations per block Sometimes (frost, hot pipes) night irrigations are required EC may raise from 2.0 up mS/cm but no lack of water!!!!!

8 Planting on hole (rooting) Planting on hole: When truss 1 is flowering/first flower of truss 2 starts to flower During rooting in slab (+/-some days) more water to maintain contact slab-block Roots can take water from slab?Reduce water!!! Control period starts

9 After rooting After rooting plants reacts “vegetative” (stem gets more thick) “Generative” steering with water (and climate: more “active”) Reduce gradually humidity slab (f.e. 95  75%) Measure weight and / or humidity Guideline is 1% weight per day during 3 weeks Low drain% 0-5% EC slab rise up from +/- 3 to 5.0 max 6.0 mS/cm After truss 3 and 4 are flowering, fruitload will start to limit vegetative growth After control period back to “normal” irrigation strategy

10 After rooting Dangers of generative steering by too less water (especially at high EC) Dry+high EC= Magnesium deficiency symtoms (first in old leafs) Dried flowers Pythium (especially when humidity changes from wet to dry and reversely) Weight scales can be helpful equipment! Keep always looking to color flowers and plant

11 Water management after control period (“normal” irrigation stategy) Start time after 100 J – 150 J 2-3 hour after sunrise till hour before sunset decrease of water content Rockwool % Cocopeat % Night shot when decrease of water content is too big  reducing root pressure

12 Shot length Big shot  bigger break  dryer slab > generative Small shot  wetter slab > vegetative Optimal shot length calculation: 2 - 5% of slab volume Calculation and registration per m²

13 Decrease of water content

14 Weight scales & drain measurement

15 Decrease of water content slab How is the calculation? Big decrease  dryer > generative Small decrease  wetter > vegetative

16 Drain and gift amount Amount of gift 2 – 3.5 sum of radiation depends of stage of the crop Time of first drain 30% total drain Drain per shot

17 Drain (adult crop in summer) 2.5 * Joules 3.5 * Joules 40-50% drain 2.5 * Joules 10-20% drain StartFirst drain3 hr before stopStop

18 EC Drip and drain High EC > generative Low EC > vegetative Depends on evaporation, higher in winter time Influence slab / drain EC -Drip EC -Decrease of water content -Amount of drain -Shot length

19 pH drip and drain pH drip between 5.2 – 5.5 pH in slab between 5.5 – 6.2 for optimal uptake elements Low Ph  uptake of positive ions High pH  uptake of negative ions Steer the pH in root environment: Ammonium nitrate  based on pH & HCO 3 -level Ureum  based on pH & HCO 3 -level

20 Equipment to control Weight scale Humidity measurement Extra checks - measuring EC / pH / drip-drain amount

21 Substrate Cocos in opposite of Rockwool: -Higher decrease of water content -Bigger shots -Higher drain EC

22 CO 2 + LAI

23 Fotosynthese Light suplies energy to transform CO 2 + H 2 0 into the leave to sugars

24 Production tomato (kg/m 2 ) Total plantgrowth (biomass production) Leaf fotosynthesis Light interception Fraction to fruits (Biomass distribution) Amount of fruits x potential fruit size

25 Leaf Area Index Optimum for summer between This means 3 - 4m² leaves per m² floor Average 16 leaves = 1m² LAI LAI of 3 means 50 leaves per m² Higher greenhouse, more light, needs higher LAI

26 Depending factors on optimum LAI Plantload per m² Amount of light Time of the year CO 2 level

27 Plantload related to LAI truss small beef (Admiro, 170 gr) traditional greenhouse 100 kg CO 2 / hour admiro Density: 3.1 April 75 fruits per m² 36 leaves 1200 J June 100 fruits per m² 48 leaves > 1600 J August 85 fruits per m² 42 leaves J September 60 fruits per m² 15 leaves, top is out

28 High modern greenhouse 10 % extra transmission > 10 % more density More CO2 5 – 10 % extra density For strong variaties lower density Generative and open variaties higher density Climate  Leaf lenght

29 AN,SR too warm: -long internodes -thin head, weak truss -short leafs at high HD(dry air) -long leafs at low HD -hollow fruits Peak too warm: -length internodes: 1.Fast-Slow rise to peak 2.High-Low T-pipe 3.High-Low HD -short leafs (at high HD) -weak truss -pollination problems AN,SR too cold: - short internodes -long leafs (rootpressure and low HD) -fat head -purple head -too strong flowers -pollination problems Peak too cold: -chlorosis (too less transpiration) -short internodes -pollination problems PN too cold (in relation to plantload and lightconditions): -fat, purple heads -too strong trusses/flowers Temperature strategy tomato & balance PN too warm: -thin weak heads -weak trusses & flowers -small tomatoes -hollow fruits -too long leafs

30 CO 2 efficiency 1500 x 1000 / CO 2 x CO 2 = effect From 350 to 450 ppm 1500 x 1000 / 350 x 350 = 12% extra growth From 1000 to 1100ppm 1500 x 1000 / 1000 x 1000 = 1.5% extra growth

31 Light interception makes a difference Bron: Nederhof

32 Artiplant Measuring light on different levels in the crop

33 Increase of light interception

34 Advantages of removing top leaves Better penetration of the light to the lower level of the plant (more activity) More assimilates to the fruits Higher production till 10% is possible but the total LAI must be high enough, be carefull with deleafing at the bottom of the plants

35 Effect of removing ( top leaves) 10% more production is possible

36 Disadvantages of removing top leaves and too open plants Too low total LAI, reduction of production capacity Too high radiation on young fruits, white fruits, hard skin, splitting fruits

37 How does the plant grow? Radiation CO2 Feeding Water (plant) temperature humidity

38 Functions Head = new development, future Leaves = factory producing assimilates Stem = pipeline (logistics) Roots = entrance, mouth of the plant Fruits = storage of assimilates

39 Principle Leaves with light and CO 2 produce assimilates Assimilates can be used for: *Further development of the factory *Storage in fruits “Growing is creating the right balance in this process”

40 Good balance 30% for plant 70% for fruits More to the plant means strong and nice plants but to low yield More to the fruits means high production for the short term but on the long term the plant will be weaker and weaker till the factory is totally destroyed

41 Balance plant & light Example: the total light is 1200 units per m² Heads per m2 34 Light per head For maintencance 120 For fruit Light for the fruit per m Production 100%86% Difference 0%-14%

42 Tools to keep balance Density of plants and LAI Temperature Light CO 2 Water and fertilizers Mechanic Variety, grafting

43 Density and Light A good base is 50% of the job Grow with a plan and a strategy The optimum system depends on the targets of the producer There many ways to grow tomatoes Successful growing is just making as less mistakes as possible

44 The GreenScheduler experience crop density fruit size flower speed global radiation artificial light

45 The GreenScheduler Crop density planning Variety Light conditions Balance Result Load and production

46

47 Light - Temperature Available light is the limiting factor in most cases High radiation (600 Watt) gives extra generativity With density, temperatures,CO 2 and irrigation we can anticipate on this fact The optimum temp range for tomato is between degree °C

48 DIF Difference between day and night temp has big influence on the character of the plant A big DIF gives a greater development on the fruits  relative warm day, relative cold night A small DIF gives a greater development to the plant  relative cool day, warm night

49 Climate influence

50 Generative or vegetative? How can I recognize the condition of the plant?

51 Same greenhouse, same varytie: where are the most and biggest tomatoes? Left or right?

52 Weak

53 Generative

54 Fast and strong fruitsetting

55 Condition of the plant GenerativeVegetative Condition headFlatRound Flowering heightHeightLow Truss positionFlatUpwards Bending truss tipBentStraight / upwards Position flower knotBentUpwards Size of flower knotThickThin Truss stemThickThin

56 Condition of the plant GenerativeVegetative Flower colourBright yellowPale yellow SettingStrongWeak Swelling fruitsStrongWeak Plant balanceFruitsLeafs Leaf lengthShortLong Leaf volumeOpenFull Virus image headMuchLess

57 Condition of the plant Powerful or Weak

58 Too strong

59 Weak

60 Condition of the plant Powerful, strong Low speed Powerless, weak High speed Condition headPowerful, thickPowerless, thin Anthocyaan / purpleMuchLess Virus image headLessMuch InternodesShortLong Crop colourDarkLight StemThickThin Setting speedLowHigh

61 Condition of the plant Powerful, strong Low speed Powerless, weak High speed Plant loadHighLow Leaf lengthStretchedCompact

62 Mechanic ways to manage the crop Removing top leaves Deleafing strategy Truss pruning Clipping or twisting

63 Varieties - grafting Combination rootstock, variety Amount of tops per rootstock depends power in the crop

64 The start

65 During the crop

66 Not bad

67 New start interplanting

68 Plant balance  local light levels= crop planning Analyze light conditions before you start and work it out  Green Scheduler crop planning program Every area in the world and every season has his own specific climate and light curves So experience is very usable and valuable, but a 1 to 1 copy from place to place is not per definition successful

69 Crop planning In the winter and spring we have to keep the crop open enough and density is often too high In the summer we need enough power and LAI to survive In autumn we need an open crop again….  crop planning

70 Grow with a plan with clear and realistic targets Density Speed of the crop Production per week Fruit size Quality Length and period of the crop  Green Scheduler crop planning!!

71 Other important factors Availability and quality of labour Technical possibilities “Green management” capacities Eliminate risks Keep it clear and simple

72 Thank you for your attention!


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