2Objectives Vocabulary Explain the process of convection. Summarize how convection in the mantle is related to the movements of tectonic plates.Compare and contrast the processes of ridge push and slab pull.VocabularyMantle Convection Currentridge pushslab pull
3Causes of Plate Motions HYPOTHESIS: large-scale motion in the mantle drives the movement of tectonic plates.
4MANTLE CONVECTION = transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated matter between Earth’s hot interior (Mantle) and its cooler exterior Crust).* causes the plates to MOVE… similar to a boat floating on an ocean current
5The rising part of a convection current spreads out as it lifts and splits the crust at a divergent plate boundary .The sinking force pulls tectonic plates downward at convergent boundaries.
6Push and PullRidge push = the weight of the uplifted ridge pushes an oceanic plate toward the trench formed at the subduction zone.
7Push and PullSlab pull = the weight of a subducting plate helps pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone.A sinking region of a mantle convection current could suck an oceanic plate downward into a subduction zone.
10Unanswered Questionsset of questions surround the formation of plate boundaries :Are mantle convection currents permanent features?How does a convection current start?Is convection occurring only in the upper mantle?Do convection currents shift their position in the mantle over time?
11Great Rift Valley in Africa The Great Rift Valley lies on a continental divergent plate boundary. Divergent plate boundaries are where the earth's rigid lithosphere is being separated due to activity in the flexible asthenoshere and is creating new lithosphere. Because of this rifting process, the Great Rift Valley is constantly changing and "pulling from East and West to cause the North-South divide"
12Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment1. How might a convection current cause a divergent boundary?An upward flow in the mantle causes the asthenosphere to rise. This force causes the lithosphere to rise and split. As the plates separate, material rising from the mantle supplies the magma that hardens to form new ocean crust.
13Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment2. How might a convection current cause a convergent boundary?A sinking region of a mantle convection current could suck an oceanic plate downward into a subduction zone. The weight of a subducting plate helps pull the trailing lithosphere into the subduction zone in a process called slab pull.
14Causes of Plate Motions Section Assessment3. How are slab push and slab pull related processes?Slab pull is thought to be the most important process driving tectonic plate motions. The material that is subducted through slab pull enters the convection current that drives slab push.