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Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage Stanley Culpepper, University of Georgia, Tifton.

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Presentation on theme: "Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage Stanley Culpepper, University of Georgia, Tifton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diversity and Integration To Preserve Conservation Tillage Stanley Culpepper, University of Georgia, Tifton

2 Topics of Discussion  Changes in cotton production  Efforts to convert average cotton grower to heavy residue  Will the cotton farmer survive resistance

3 Total grower (n = 65) acres = 129,615 (12.6% of GA cotton) Total agent county (n = 10) acres = 246,034 (24% of GA cotton) Palmer Changes Agriculture Forever

4 Most troublesome weed

5 Changes in Herbicide Management 2002: $24/A2010: $63/A Roundup Burndown Roundup POST 1 Roundup POST 2 Roundup + diuron PD Roundup + Valor Burndown1 Gramoxone + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup + Staple POST 1 Roundup + Dual POST 2 Direx + MSMA PD

6 Photo by A.C. York : 17% of growers hand-weeded 5% cotton acres at $2.40/A : 92% of growers hand-weeded 52% cotton acres at $23.70/A

7 129, ,100 36,100 Not Chopped Chopped at 6 inch Chopped at 1 inch Palmer Seed (#/plant) When Chopping Plants at Cotton Layby. Chopped at soil 22, /2011: Sosnoskie/Grey/Webster/Culpepper

8 Changes in tillage/planting practices from to

9 Tillage used by Georgia cotton growers 256,075 acres (25.9%) 264,266 acres (26.7%) Deep turning (last 3 years) Incorporation of herbicides with tillage (2010) %

10 Most Palmer amaranth emerges from top inch

11 Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby WeedsDeep Tillage Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage. Macon County, GA.

12 Tillage in Cotton During 2010 %PPI tillageGA Counties # Worth, Pulaski, Tift, Berrien, Echols, Turner, Brooks, Pierce, Marion, Grady, Emanual, Montgomery, Atkins, Coffee, Lowndes, Dooly, Wilcox, Thomas, Crisp, Schley, Webster, Colquitt Bullock, Jefferson, Treutlen, Wheeler, Daugherty Effingham, Telfair, Tattnall, Dodge, Toombs, Jeff Davis, Bleckly, Early, Lanier, Irwin, Lee, Macon 13 >50Jenkins, Johnson, Washington, Screven, Wayne, Laurens, Randolf, Decatur, Seminole, Miller, Taylor Ben Hill 12

13 Palmer requires a significant amount of sunlight to emerge!!

14 Potential Benefits for Georgia Growers 1.Improved Palmer control 2.Protect herbicide chemistry 3.Labor (compared to tillage) 4.Wind and water erosion 5.Prevents GR horseweed 6.Prevents/Lessons GR ryegrass 7.Moisture conservation 8.Reduce herbicide inputs 9.Higher yields on dryland 10. Protection from EPA 11. Reduces thrips damage

15 Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Weeds Rye cover Palmer amaranth response to cover crops. Macon County, GA

16 Staple + Reflex + Direx PRE Roundup WMax + Parrlay POST Direx + MSMA Layby Weeds Palmer amaranth response to deep tillage and cover crops. Macon County, GA Deep tillage Rye cover crop

17 GR Palmer amaranth influence on cotton lint yield (lb/A) in the Roundup system.* 592 c 690 b Weeds *RR System: Diuron + Reflex + Staple fb Roundup + Parrlay fb Direx + MSMA Inversion + rye Deep inversion 790 a Rye 480 d

18 Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers 1.Blowout impacting stand 2.Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling 3.Spray then roll, roll then spray? 4.Time to get established 5.Increased fertilizer 6.Rubber wheel system 7.Grower comfort

19 Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers 1.Blowout impacting stand 2.Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling 3.Spray then roll, roll then spray? 4.Time to get established 5.Increased fertilizer 6.Rubber wheel system 7.Grower comfort

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25 Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers 1.Blowout impacting stand 2.Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling 3.Spray then roll, roll then spray? 4.Time to get established 5.Increased fertilizer 6.Rubber wheel system 7.Grower comfort

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27 Percent Palmer Amaranth Control with Reflex 1 pt/A PPI or PRE in A 79 B 98 A Irrigated Dryland

28 Reflex: Soil moist at planting; rainfall 13 DAT. PPIPRE

29 72 b 60 c 91 a PPI PRESplit Percent Palmer Control with Reflex + Prowl PPI, PRE, Split DAT. Injury = 5% Injury = 15% Reflex 1 pt + Prowl H20 2 pt

30 80 b 92 a 3 c Rototiller Field cultivator Disk Percent Palmer Control with Reflex + Prowl PPI, TyTy, GA. 38 DAT.

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32 Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers 1.Blowout impacting stand 2.Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling 3.Spray then roll, roll then spray? 4.Time to get established 5.Increased fertilizer 6.Rubber wheel system 7.Grower comfort

33 No herbicideHerbicide

34 Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers 1.Blowout impacting stand 2.Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling 3.Spray then roll, roll then spray? 4.Time to get established 5.Increased fertilizer 6.Rubber wheel system 7.Grower comfort

35 lb rye No N Rye Biomass (lb/A) at time of cotton Planting on May 13, lb rye 30 unit N 90 lb rye No N 90 lb rye 30 unit N 5560 PLANTED Nov 3

36 lb rye No N Rye Biomass (lb/A) at time of cotton Planting on May 13, lb rye 30 unit N 90 lb rye No N 90 lb rye 30 unit N 2519 PLANTED DEC 22

37 Potential Challenges for Georgia Growers 1.Blowout impacting stand 2.Incorporate herbicides with when strip tilling 3.Spray then roll, roll then spray? 4.Time to get established 5.Increased fertilizer 6.Rubber wheel system 7.Grower comfort

38 Developing An Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management Plan Eric P. Prostko, Ph.D. Professor and Extension Weed Specialist Dept. Crop & Soil Sciences

39 Herbicide-resistance is not a new phenomenon! Its been happening since 1968! Source: International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds (http://www.weedscience.org/In.asp)

40 Evolution of Herbicide Resistant Weeds Repeated applications of herbicides with same site of action (i.e. selection pressure) Annual weeds that……  occur in high populations  are widely distributed  are prolific seed producers  have efficient gene (seed or pollen) dissemination  competitive growth

41 PPO Herbicides Resistance has already been reported in other areas!!! Amaranthus quitensis –2005 (Bolivia) Common waterhemp –2001 (Kansas) –2002 (Illinois) –2005 (Missouri) –2009 (Iowa) Common ragweed –2005 (Delaware) –2006 (Ohio) Wild poinsettia –2004 (Brazil)

42 Liberty Abuse of Liberty –LL cotton, corn, soybeans –PHY WRF cotton –may jeopardize future technologies (DHT, Dicamba) Current resistances –Italian ryegrass (Oregon) –Goosegrass (Malaysia)

43 37 18 % acres Liberty-based Programs 0 Impact of GR Palmer amaranth on GA.

44 1.5 pt of 2,4-DLiberty pt of 2,4-D

45 Clarity 8 ozLiberty + Clarity 8 oz

46 HPPDLiberty + HPPD

47 Herbicide Resistance: Will You Survive? If resistance is one in a billion then you only need 918 acres to find that plant. (historically resistance is 1 plant in population of 1-10 million…9.18 acres) 25 plants per square foot emerge = 1,089,000 plants per acre

48 How do we save Liberty and the family farm???? Significant pressure on Bayer…….prevent known repetitive abusers from being able to purchase Liberty?? Bayer/Monsanto/Dow should unite!!!! Growers/Industry/Distributors/Dealers/Extension unite!! Regulate????

49 NO DOUBT THE MOST SUSTAINABLE PROGRAM IN THERMS OF HERBICIDE RESISTANCE


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