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Sinéad Breen, Mathematics Department Threshold Concepts & Mathematics Task Design

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Threshold Concepts Emerged from UK National Research Council project (2001-2005) ‘Enhancing Teaching- Learning Environments in Undergraduate Courses’ Economists Erik Meyer & Ray Land 2

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Threshold Concepts Portal: opening new, previously inaccessible way of thinking E.g. heat transfer in cooking 3

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Threshold Concepts - Characteristics (Meyer & Land 2003) Transformative Irreversible Integrative Bounded Troublesome 4

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Threshold Concepts - Characteristics Also, Discursive Reconstitutive 5

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Threshold Concepts Examples from different disciplines (Meyer & Land 2003): Limits in mathematics Opportunity cost in economics Laws of motion in physics Equal temperament in music 6

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Threshold Concepts Ways of thinking & practising: Evidence-based practice in health sciences Learner-centredness in university teaching Critical reflection 7

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Recommendations for Teaching (Land et al. 2005, Cousin 2006) Jewels in curriculum – foci of module Construct framework for engagement Listen for understanding Provide supportive nurturing space or holding environment 8

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Recommendations for Teaching (Land et al. 2005, Cousin 2006) Tolerate uncertainty Adopt recursive approach Be aware of unintended consequences of ‘good pedagogy’ 9

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Mathematics Perspective ‘Function’ & other mathematics concepts as threshold concepts Traditional approaches to curriculum design Focus on tasks Types of tasks Samples of tasks designed Feedback from students 10

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Mathematics Perspective Examples of functions: f(x)=x+4 f(x)=3x f(x)=x 2 11

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Function as a Threshold Concept -transformative but troublesome Understanding ‘function’ requires conceiving of a function as an action, process, object (Dubinsky and McDonald 2001) Reification (from process to object view) is “an ontological shift, a sudden ability to see something familiar in a new light” and a “rather complex phenomenon” (Sfard 1991) 12

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Function as a Threshold Concept -irreversible and integrative Difficult for expert practitioners to look back over threshold to understand difficulties of students (Meyer and Land 2003) − flexibility in thought following ‘reification’ means experts fail to appreciate difficulties of novices (Gray and Tall 1994) Schema – coherent framework linking reified concept to other associated concepts (Dubinsky and McDonald 2001) 13

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Traditional Approaches to Curriculum Design Cousin (2006) a tendency…to stuff their curriculum with content, burdening themselves with the task of transmitting vast amounts of knowledge bulk Defining undergraduate mathematics courses in terms of mathematical content (techniques, theorems) (Hillel 2001) Students learn standardised procedures but lack working methodology of mathematician (Dreyfus 1991) Reliance on superficial, shallow, or rote learning 14

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Focus on Tasks NAIRTL funded project (2011-2012) undertaken with Dr Ann O’Shea, NUIM Dr Kirsten Pfeiffer, NUIG 15

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Focus on Tasks Mason (2002) in a sense, all teaching comes down to constructing tasks for students…This puts a considerable burden on the lecturer to construct tasks from which students actually learn Groves and Doig (2002) insufficient attention is being paid to the critical role of the development of conceptually focussed, robust tasks which can be used to support the development of sophisticated mathematical thinking 16

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Focus on Tasks Types of tasks affect learning Boesen et al (2010) o Familiar tasks -> imitative reasoning, little or no conceptual understanding o Unfamiliar tasks -> creative mathematically founded reasoning Tasks should mirror practices of mathematicians (Dreyfus 1991; Cuoco et al 1996; Bass 2005) 17

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Task Types Practices of mathematicians/mathematical skills to develop in students: Experimenting, inventing, creating, visualising, reasoning, conjecturing, generalising, using definitions and mathematical language, classifying objects, comparing, interpreting, evaluating statements, analysing reasoning. 18

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Task Types Tasks identified as appropriate for Irish first year undergraduate Calculus students: o generating examples o evaluating statements o analysing reasoning o conjecturing o generalising o visualising o using definitions 19

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Sample Tasks Example Generation: Give an example of a function with natural domain R\{2,4}. Visualisation: Sketch a graph of a function, f, which satisfies all of the given conditions: f(0)=0, f(2)=6,f is even. 20

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Sample Tasks Conjecturing/Generalising: i. Sketch the graphs of f 1 (x)=x 3 and f 2 (x)=x 3 +4. ii. Sketch the graphs of g 1 (x)=1/x 2 and g 2 (x)=1/x 2 +4. iii. Sketch the graphs of h 1 (x)=3 x and h 2 (x)=3 x +4. iv. What is the relationship between the functions in the pairs f 1 and f 2 ; g 1 and g 2 ; h 1 and h 2 ? Can you make a general conjecture regarding the graphs of functions from your observation of the graphs of these pairs? 21

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Sample Tasks Evaluating Mathematical Statements: Suppose f(x) is a function with natural domain R. Decide if each of the following statements is sometimes, always or never true: (i) There are two different real numbers a and b such that f(a)=f(b). (ii) There are three different real numbers a, b, c such that f(a)=b and f(a)=c. 22

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Feedback from Students Student E But you really have to think more about things and understand the concepts and the different - ahm - possible solutions that may be there and why one solution isn't going to work……That would be more to cement the whole concept, why it works this way and - you know to cement that into your mind. 23

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Feedback from Students Student P The conceptual ones [tasks] really get you thinking…the conceptual ones ah helped you to learn the topic better, because you really know why it works not just how it works Student A You’re kind of bringing together what you know from other things….you kind of actually are more thinking yourself. 24

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Concluding Remarks 25 Importance of identifying Threshold Concepts Challenge of constructing effective tasks and activities for students to engage with concepts Suggestions made as to the types of tasks suitable for first year undergraduate Calculus students Key component of successful understanding of functions involves the ability to move flexibly between different characterisations of functions

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Concluding Remarks Thurston (1990) Mathematics is amazingly compressible: you may struggle a long time, step by step, work through some process or idea from several approaches. But once you understand it and have the mental perspective to see it as a whole, there is often a tremendous mental compression. You can file it away, recall it, quickly and completely when you need it, and use it as just one step in some other mental process. The insight that goes with this compression is one of the real joys of mathematics. 26

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References Bass, H., 2005. Mathematics, mathematicians and mathematics education. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 42, pp.417-430. Boesen, J., Lithner, J, and Palm, T., 2010. The relation between types of assessment tasks and the mathematical reasoning students use. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 75, pp.89-105. Cousin, G. 2006 An introduction to threshold concepts. Planet 17. Available online at http://www.gees.ac.uk/planet/p17/gc.pdf last accessed 20 June 2012. Cuoco, A., Goldenberg, E.P. and Mark, J., 1996. Habits of mind: an organising principle for mathematics curricula. Journal of Mathematical Behaviour, 15, pp.375-402. Dreyfus, T., 1991. Advanced mathematical thinking processes. In: D. Tall ed., Advanced Mathematical Thinking. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp.25-41. Dubinsky, E. and McDonald, M.A., 2001. In: D. Holton ed., The Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at University Level. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.275-282. Gray, E. and Tall, D., 1994. Duality, ambiguity and flexibility: A “proceptual” view of simple arithmetic. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 25(2), pp.116-140. Groves, S. and Doig, B., 2002. Developing conceptual understanding: The role of the task in communities of mathematical inquiry, PME26. 27

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References Hillel, J., 2001. Trends in curriculum: A working group report. In: D. Holton ed., The Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at University Level. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.59- 70. Land, R., Cousin, G., Meyer, J.H.F. & Davies, P., 2005. Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge (3): implications for course design & evaluation. In: C. Rust ed., Improving student learning diversity and inclusivity. Oxford: Centre for Staff and Learning Development. Available from http://www.ee.ucl.ac.uk/~mflanaga/ISL04-pp53-64-Land-et-al.pdf [Accessed 20 June 2012].http://www.ee.ucl.ac.uk/~mflanaga/ISL04-pp53-64-Land-et-al.pdf Mason, J., 2002. Mathematics teaching practice: a guide for university and college lecturers. Chichester: Horwood Publishing Ltd. Mason, J., & Johnston-Wilder, S., 2004. Designing and using mathematical tasks. St Alban’s: Tarquin Press. Meyer, J.H.F. and Land, R., 2003. Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge: linkages to ways of thinking and practicing. Edinburgh: ETL Project (Occasional Report 4). Available from: http://www.etl.tla.ed.ac.uk/docs/ETLreport4.pdf [Accessed 20 June 2012]. http://www.etl.tla.ed.ac.uk/docs/ETLreport4.pdf Pettersson, K., 2012. The Threshold Concept of a Function - A Case Study of a Student’s Development of Her Understanding. Sweden: MADIF-8. Available from: 28

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References http://www.mai.liu.se/SMDF/madif8/Pettersson.pdfhttp://www.mai.liu.se/SMDF/madif8/Pettersson.pdf [Accessed 20 June 2012]. Sangwin, C., 2003. New opportunities for encouraging higher level mathematical learning by creative use of emerging computer assessment. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 34(6), pp.813-829. Selden, A, Selden, J., Hauk, S. and Mason, A., 2000. Why can’t calculus students access their knowledge to solve non-routine problems? In E. Dubinsky, A. H. Schoenfeld and J. Kaput eds., Research in collegiate mathematics educations IV. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, pp.128-153. Sfard, A., 1991. On the dual nature of mathematical conceptions: Reflections on processes and objects as different sides of the same coin. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 22, pp.1-36. Swan, M., 2008. Designing a multiple representation learning experience in secondary algebra. Educational Designer, 1(1), pp.1-17. Thurston, W., 1990. Mathematical Education. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 37, pp.844-850. Vinner, S., 1983. Concept definition, concept image and the notion of function. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 14, pp.293-305. 29

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