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Ancient History Seminar: Egypt in Late Antiquity by Jitse H.F. Dijkstra.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient History Seminar: Egypt in Late Antiquity by Jitse H.F. Dijkstra."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient History Seminar: Egypt in Late Antiquity by Jitse H.F. Dijkstra

2 Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ( )

3 M. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire (1957, rev. ed.)

4 A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (1964): still useful narrative survey

5 Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (1971) > ‘paradigm shift’ since 1980s - Positive - Late Antiquity a transitional period between Antiquity and Middle Ages - gradual and complex period of cultural change, one of the most profound periods of cultural change in history - ‘Transformation’ instead of ‘decline’ - `Longue durée` approach: CE - period that has much in common with our time: multiculturalism, religious interactions, shifting frontiers, the origins of Christianity - birth of ‘Late Antique Studies’ as a separate discipline within Classics

6 Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire ( )/The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity ( ) (1993; rev. ed. 2012): thematic Stephen Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD (2007): best narrative survey of whole period

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8 Roman Empire c. 300 (Tetrarchy)

9 The Tetrarchs, St Mark’s Basilica, Venice

10 Constantine, Capitol, Rome

11 Division of Empire in East and West: sons of Theodosius, Arcadius and Honorius

12 Eastern Roman Empire, ca. 525

13 Justinian ( )

14 Continuities and Change in Egypt from the Graeco-Roman Period

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16 Queen Hatshepsut Temple (female Pharaoh) Deir el-Bahri, Egypt (1550 B.C.) Abu Simbel Temple dedicated to Rameses II ( B.C.) Nubia Abu Simbel Temple dedicated to Rameses II ( B.C.)

17 Horus Osiris and Isis

18 Periodization Graeco-Roman Egypt Ptolemaic Egypt ( BC): Ptolemy I – Roman conquest by Octavian Ptolemaic Egypt ( BC): Ptolemy I – Roman conquest by Octavian - Egypt, Cyprus, Cyrenaica (Lybia), Thrace, Syria, Anatolia - ‘family affair’: Arsinoe II Philadelphos - Macedonian descent: Greekness/Hellenisation (Greek names) - Attitude towards population: continuity (Ptolemy I Soter etc.) - Last ‘Pharaoh’ Queen Cleopatra VII, lost Battle of Actium with Mark Antony in 31 BC, Octavian conquers Egypt (30 BC) - Greek status for some cities: Alexandria, Ptolemais, Naukratis, and later Antinoopolis - Greeks are the main officials Roman period (30 BC – AD 284): Octavian (27 Augustus) – Diocletian Roman period (30 BC – AD 284): Octavian (27 Augustus) – Diocletian - continuity: Augustus also ‘Pharaoh’, plus building projects; reform of coinage and calendar - Special position as ‘grain basket’ of Rome; no officials of senatorial class, prefect - Main officials: Roman; Greek administrative system retained (continuity); from ca. 202 (Septimius Severus) all nome capitals city status, poleis - Control over temples and temple land - Idios Logos (Special Account): who is Roman citizen, who has Greek or Egyptian status - Not many emperors visited Egypt, but Hadrian did in Third Century: instability conquest of Egypt by Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra (270-2)

19 Augustus as Pharaoh, temple of Mandulis at Kalabsha

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21 Sources Archaeology/material remains Archaeology/material remains Epigraphy/inscriptions Epigraphy/inscriptions Literary works Literary works Papyri! Papyri!Limitations: - Most evidence in Delta has disappeared - Course of Nile has changed

22 Time and Place Egypt in Late Antiquity: Egypt in Late Antiquity: (Bagnall stops in middle of V) Place: Especially the countryside (chora) outside of Alexandria


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