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Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols PhD Research Proposal Idris Skloul Ibrahim Supervisors: Dr. Peter King Prof. Rob Pooley.

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Presentation on theme: "Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols PhD Research Proposal Idris Skloul Ibrahim Supervisors: Dr. Peter King Prof. Rob Pooley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols PhD Research Proposal Idris Skloul Ibrahim Supervisors: Dr. Peter King Prof. Rob Pooley

2 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols  Problem Statement & Objective  Introduction  MANET-based Applications  MANET Routing Approaches  Related Work & Issues  Conclusion & Research Direction Proposal Outlines Proposal Outlines: Outlines:

3 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols The Problem: Routing (and adaptation) challenges in dynamic and mobile ad-hoc networks (in addition to common constraints in a mobile ad-hoc environment); extended to ‘self-composable’ networks Proposal Outline Outline

4 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols LLow overhead => few control messages PProvide a highly reactive service to help ensure successful delivery of data packets in spite of node movement or other changes in network conditions CConserve battery power –b–by not sending periodic advertisements and by not needing to receive them –H–Hosts wake-up from their sleep/standby modes to periodically check for messages SScalability and Zone Radius relationship in networks with thousands of nodes e.g. WSNs (main objective) Proposal Objective: Objective:

5 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Computer Network Classifications: Wired Wireless Wireless Communication 1Wireless Communication 2 Infrastructure Non Infrastructure Mobile Ad Hoc N. (MANET) Introduction

6 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Infrastructure Based Networks Uses fixed base stations (infrastructure) which are responsible for coordinating communication between the mobile hosts (nodes) Introduction

7 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Ad-Hoc Networks Consists of mobile nodes which communicate with each other through wireless medium without any fixed infrastructure Introduction

8 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols AP Ad hoc Mode Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols Wireless Net. Basic Architecture Basic Architecture Infrastructure Mode

9 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Meaning of the word “Ad hoc” is “for this”, means “for this purpose only”, implies it is a special network for a particular application.  A mobile ad-hoc network is a self configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links—the union of which form an arbitrary topology.  The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Introduction

10 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols first generation1972 PRNETDARPA  The first generation goes back to At the time, they were called PRNET and were sponsored by DARPA second generation1980s SURAN PSN  The second generation of ad-hoc networks emerged in 1980s,when the ad-hoc network systems were further enhanced and implemented as a part of the SURAN (Survivable Adaptive Radio Networks) program. This provided a PSN to the mobile battlefield in an environment without infrastructure. This program proved to be beneficial in improving the radios' performance by making them smaller and cheaper 1990sNBC IEEE  In the 1990s, the concept of commercial ad-hoc networks arrived with NBC. and other communications equ. At the same time, the idea of a collection of mobile nodes was proposed at several research conferences. The IEEE subcommittee had adopted the term "ad-hoc networks". MANETIETF  Mobile ad-hoc network was also be named as MANET by IETF. History OfMANET

11 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Easy of deployment  Speed of deployment  Decreased dependence on infrastructure Introduction Why we are need to Use Ad-Hoc Network Why we are need to Use Ad-Hoc Network ?

12 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Characteristics Decentralized Self-organized Self-deployed Dynamic network topology  Tradeoffs Bandwidth limited Multi-hop router needed Energy consumption problem Security problem Why traditional routing protocols are not suitable for MANET networks ? MANET Characteristics & MANET Characteristics & Tradeoffs Tradeoffs

13 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Hidden Terminal Problem Two nodes, out of each others’ radio range; simultaneously try to transmit data to an intermediate node, which is in radio range of both the sending nodes. collision None of the sending nodes will be aware of the other node’s transmission, causing a collision to occur at the intermediate node. MANET MANET Medium Issues Medium Issues Receive r Sende r

14 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  RTS-CTS handshake protocol A node that wishes to send data is required to ask for permission first, by sending a RTS to the receiving node. The receiving node then replies with a CTS message. The CTS message can be heard by all nodes within radio range of the receiving node, and instructs them not to use the wireless medium since another transmission is about to take place. The node that requested the transmission can then begin sending data to the receiving node The Hidden Terminal Terminal Problem Problem Solution Solution Receive r Sende r RTS CTS Data

15 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Exposed node problem When a node overhears another transmission and hence r rr refrains to transmit any data of its own, even though such a aa a t tt transmission would not cause a collision due to the limited radio range of the nodes. Data X XX X Y YY Y S SS S D DD D MANET Medium Issues Medium Issues

16 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols  Directional Antennas / separate Channels directional antennasseparate channels The exposed node problem is leads to sub-optimal utilization of the wireless medium. Some proposed solutions are the usage of directional antennas (instead of omni-directional antennas) or separate channels for control messages and data. transmission power control A technique called transmission power control could serve a dual purpose in this context. By adjusting the transmission power of nodes, interference can be reduced at the same time as nodes save valuable energy. Exposed Node Node Problem Problem Solution Solution

17 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Ad Hoc Wireless Networks Architecture & Protocols PPersonal area networking Cell phone, laptop, ear phone EEmergency operations Search and rescue Policing and fire fighting CCivilian environments Taxi cab network Meeting rooms Sports stadiums Boats, aircrafts MMilitary use On the battle field MANET Application Application

18 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Hmm, A MANET makes sense. Dad, you can use Nelson if I am too fast. Hi, Marge. I miss you. I can hear u, Lisa. Can u hear me? Yes. What are you doing, Nelson? Be home early, Homer. The Simpson's

19 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols MANET Difficulties for routing  limited connectivity due to transmission range of signal  Low bandwidth  Higher error rates  Vulnerable to interference  Power consumption  No specific devices to do routing  Dynamic nature - high mobility and frequent topological changes  Adhoc routing  Traditional routing  AODV  DSR  DYMO  DSDV  Common A DGCFBEH X X X

20 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols MANET Routing Protocols Classification Source: MINEMA Uniform routing Proactive routing Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol Fisheye State Routing (FSR) Distance Routing Effect Algo. for Mobility (DREAM)Location-based routing Reactive routing Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) Location Aided Routing (LAR)Location-based routing Associativity Based Routing (ABR) protocolLink-stability based routing protocol Signal Stability-base adaptive Routing (SSR)Link-stability based routing protocol Non- uniform routing Zone-based routing Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)Hybrid routing protocol Hybrid Adhoc Routing Protocol (HARP)Hybrid routing protocol Zone-based Hierarchical Link State routing (ZHLS)Hybrid routing protocol Grid Location Service (GLS)Location service Cluster-based routing Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR) Hierarchical State Routing (HSR) Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Core-node based routing Landmark Adhoc Routing (LANMAR)Proactive routing Core-Extraction Distributed Adhoc Routing (CEDAR)Proactive routing Optimised Link State Routing protocol (OLSR)Proactive routing  Adhoc routing  Traditional routing  AODV  DSR  DYMO  DSDV  Common

21 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols MANET Main Classification ReactiveOn-Demand ProactiveTable-Driven Hybrid DSDV WARP DREAM DSR AODV TORA ZRP HARP  Adhoc routing  Traditional routing  AODV  DSR  DYMO  DSDV  Common Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Main Classification

22 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Aim Of Proposed Protocol MDVZRP -Multipath Distance Vector Zone Routing Protocol MDVZRP BroadcastUnicast -Using Broadcast, and Unicast propagation techniques Symmetrical -We assume a Symmetrical links network. Unidirectional Problem Hello message -Node uses a Hello message to discover its zone (R. table driven) Related Work & Issues Work & Issues Route Request -Node uses Route Request to discover any node outside its zone. (on demand) Table DrivenOn demand -Proactive Table Driven distance Zone’s Radius Information -Node should get Information from any route pass through it.

23 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Aim Of Proposed Protocol Optimum Routes Radius Size -Number of Optimum Routes depends on the Number of neighbours where maximum number of routes from each neighbour is less than or equal Radius Size Related Work & Issues Work & Issues Err msg. -Any node effected by Err msg. Deletes the specific route Err msg. and Rebroadcasts Err msg. again and so on till reaches to a node which has no that route ( to prevent flooding the network by Err msg.) Err msg -In case of broken link node generates Err msg. Including Segment_No. the Segment_No. (Route No.) to identify the right broken link. Update -Node broadcasts a forward Update message when gets a new route where one of hop < R only (to reduce No. of messages.)

24 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Source Destination Example1 Example 1 Routing Algorithm 1 8 4hops 2hops 3hops √ √

25 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols R>2 Node's Zone & Radius metric R=2 R= Symmetric Network Network

26 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols A Simple network Example 2

27 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Nodes Routing Tables Node(1) Node(2) Node(3) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ………. Node(4) Node(5) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ………. Example2 ROUTING ROUTING Tables Tables

28 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols A New Node Joins The Network Ds Nx No.h Seg_No Initialization Hello ROUTING TABLE TABLE DRIVEN DRIVEN R.Upadte

29 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols The New Node’s Routing Table Node(1) Node(2) Node(3) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ………. RUP ………. RUP Node(4) Node(5) Node(6) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……….A H M ……… ……… ……….A H M ……… ……… ……….A H M ………. Hello ……….Hello ……….A H M ……….Initialization ROUTING TABLE TABLE CREATION CREATION

30 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Route Request DsNx No.h Seg_No Hello ROUTE ON- ON- DEMAND DEMAND RREQ RRPL

31 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols New Node’s Entire Routing Table Node(1) Node(2) Node(3) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ………. RUP ………. RUP Node(4) Node(5) Node(6) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……….A H M ……… ……… ……….A H M ……… ……… ……….A H M ………. Hello ……….Hello ……….A H m ……….Initialization …….…RREQ ….……RREQ ROUTING TABLE TABLE CREATION CREATION

32 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Broken Link Error REER Error Error Message Message REER

33 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Nodes Routing Tables After RERR Node(1) Node(2) Node(3) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… ………. RERR ………. RUP Node(4) Node(5) Node(6) Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ………. Ds 1 st No.h S_No ……… ……… ……… ……….RERR ……… ……… ……….FULLD ……… ……… ……….FULLD ………. Hello ……….RERR ……….RERR ……….Initialization …….…RREQ ….……RREQ ROUTING TABLES TABLES AFTER AFTER RERR RERR

34 Rajiv RamdhanyAdhoc Routing Protocols Conclusion WWWWe proposed MDVZRP for MANET based on DV,AODV AAAAllows sending packets by alternative paths and backward RERR to the source in case of unknown broken link NNNNumber of O OO Optimum Routes d dd depends on the Number of neighbours where Maximum Number from each neighbour is less than or equal Radius Size LLLLow overhead and Faster than the standard protocols: L Latency is less than AODV (N( c/b +t ) – t R) R Routing table size is less than DSDV (


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