2 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Ancient EgyptChapter IntroductionSection 1 The Nile ValleySection 2 Egypt’s Old KingdomSection 3 The Egyptian EmpireSection 4 The Civilization of KushReading ReviewChapter AssessmentClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
3 Ancient Egypt Chapter Objectives Describe how the Nile River influenced Egyptian civilization and the reasons a united government arose along its banks.Discuss government and religion during the Old Kingdom.Analyze the accomplishments of the Middle and New Kingdoms.Describe the Nubian kingdom south of Egypt.
6 The Nile Valley Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section traces the emergence of the Egyptian civilization along the banks of the Nile River and the steps taken to create one united kingdom.
7 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Nile ValleyGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions.The Egyptians depended on the Nile’s floods to grow their crops.Around 3100 B.C., Egypt’s two major kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, were combined into one.
8 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Nile ValleyGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.)The Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions.Locating PlacesEgpyt (EE·jihpt)Nile River (NYL)Sahara (suh·HAR·uh)
9 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Nile ValleyGet Ready to Read (cont.)Meeting PeopleNarmer (NAR·muhr)Building Your Vocabularycataract (KA·tuh·RAKT)delta (DEHL·tuh)papyrus (puh·PY·ruhs)hieroglyphics (HY·ruh·GLIH·fihks)dynasty (DY·nuh·stee)
10 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Nile ValleyGet Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyOrganizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 38 of your textbook to describe Egyptians’ irrigation systems.
11 The Nile Valley Settling the Nile The earliest Egyptians moved into the Nile River valley from less fertile areas.They farmed and built villages along the riverbanks.The Nile River is the longest river in the world, about 4,000 miles long.Egyptians used the Nile River for many things.(pages 39–40)
12 Settling the Nile (cont.) The Nile ValleySettling the Nile (cont.)They used river water to drink, clean, farm, and cook.They ate fish from the river.The Nile valley is a narrow, green valley in Egypt.The northern end of the valley is a fertile area of land called a delta.(pages 39–40)
13 Settling the Nile (cont.) The Nile ValleySettling the Nile (cont.)The Sahara, the largest desert in the world, lies west of the Nile Valley.The Eastern Desert lies to the east of the valley.Egypt has several natural borders to protect it.The deserts, the dangerous rapids of the Nile, and marshes in the delta kept enemies from entering Egypt.(pages 39–40)
14 Settling the Nile (cont.) The Nile ValleySettling the Nile (cont.)The Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the east allowed trade with other peoples.Within Egypt, people traveled on the Nile to trade with each other.(pages 39–40)
15 The Nile Valley How did natural protection help Egypt? Enemies had difficulty attacking the country. Keeping people safe helped the Egyptian population grow.
16 The Nile Valley The River People Floods along the Nile were predictable and were not devastating.Each spring the Nile would flood and leave a dark, fertile mud along its banks.Farmers learned about the waters of the Nile.They used the soil left behind by the floods to grow wheat, barley, and flax seeds.(pages 41–42)
17 The River People (cont.) The Nile ValleyThe River People (cont.)Farmers learned about irrigation.They dug basins to trap floodwaters, dug canals to channel water to the fields, and built dikes to strengthen the basin walls.Papyrus, a reed plant that grew along the Nile, was used to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts.Later, it was used to make paper.(pages 41–42)
18 The River People (cont.) The Nile ValleyThe River People (cont.)The Egyptian system of writing was called hieroglyphics.This system consisted of thousands of picture symbols.Some Egyptian men learned to read and write.They attended schools to learn to be scribes.(pages 41–42)
19 The Nile ValleyWhy might scribes be important to Egyptian civilization?Rulers and other people in power, such as priests and priestesses, needed scribes for record keeping. Few people could go to school to be scribes, so there were not many people the rulers could hire to work as scribes.
20 The Nile Valley A United Egypt Because the people in Egypt had surplus food, some people became artisans instead of farmers.Artisans wove cloth, made pottery, carved statues, and crafted weapons and tools.Egyptians traded with each other and with others in Mesopotamia.A few strong chiefs united groups of villages into kingdoms.(pages 43–44)
21 The Nile Valley A United Egypt (cont.) Eventually, the strongest kingdoms overpowered the weaker ones.In this way, two large kingdoms emerged—Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt.Narmer united the two kingdoms.He ruled from the city of Memphis, and his kingdom lasted long after his death.(pages 43–44)
22 The Nile Valley A United Egypt (cont.) Narmer’s descendants passed the ruling power on from father to son to grandson, forming a dynasty.Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties that historians have grouped into three time periods—Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom.(pages 43–44)
23 The Nile Valley In what ways was ancient Egypt like Mesopotamia? Both had access to powerful rivers, economies based on farming and trade, government to help the people, artisans to create products, and technological advances.
24 The Nile Valley Early Egyptian Life Ancient Egypt had social classes. The pharaoh was the highest power.The upper class consisted of nobles, priests, and government officials.The middle class included merchants, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes.Farmers were the largest group of people and were in a lower class than the middle class.(pages 45–46)
25 Early Egyptian Life (cont.) The Nile ValleyEarly Egyptian Life (cont.)Unskilled workers were the lowest class of people in ancient Egypt.(pages 45–46)
26 Early Egyptian Life (cont.) The Nile ValleyEarly Egyptian Life (cont.)Although men were the heads of households, women had more rights in Egypt than in other ancient civilizations.They could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, and obtain divorces.(pages 45–46)
27 Early Egyptian Life (cont.) The Nile ValleyEarly Egyptian Life (cont.)Few children went to school in ancient Egypt.Children had time to play games and had toys.Egyptian girls learned to sew, cook, and run a household.Boys learned farming or a skilled trade.(pages 45–46)
28 The Nile ValleyHow are U.S. children today like children of ancient Egypt? How are they different?Both can play with toys and games. However, all children are required by law to go to school in the United States. In ancient Egypt, few children went to school. Also, U.S. girls today can learn farming or a trade skill, and boys can learn to sew and cook.
29 The Nile Valley What is papyrus and how did the Egyptians use it? It is a reed plant that was used to make baskets, sandals, river rafts, and paper.
30 The Nile Valley What rights did women have in ancient Egypt? Women could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, obtain divorces, and take part in religious ceremonies.
31 The Nile ValleyGeography Skills How did the geography of the Nile River valley lead to the growth of a civilization there?The Nile River valley had natural barriers for protection, enriched soil for farming, and the river and seas for trade.
32 The Nile Valley Describe Describe the Egyptian writing system. Picture symbols, called hieroglyphics, stood for objects, ideas, and sounds.
33 The Nile ValleyAnalyze What was the significance of Narmer’s double crown?It symbolized the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt.
34 The Nile ValleyExplain what the “gift of the Nile” means.
36 Get Ready to Read Section Overview Egypt’s Old Kingdom This section discusses government, religion, and ways of life during the Old Kingdom.
37 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasEgypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs.The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs.The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs.
38 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesGiza (GEE·zuh)Meeting PeopleKing Khufu (KOO·foo)
39 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomGet Ready to Read (cont.)Building Your Vocabularypharaoh (FEHR·oh)deity (DEE·uh·tee)embalming (ihm·BAHM·ihng)mummy (MUH·mee)pyramid (PIHR·uh·MIHD)
40 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomGet Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyOrganizing Information Use a graphic organizer like the one on page 47 of your textbook to identify the different beliefs in Egypt’s religion.
41 Old Kingdom Rulers Egypt’s Old Kingdom The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2600 B.C. until about 2300 B.C.Pharaohs were all-powerful Egyptian kings who guided every activity in Egypt.Pharaohs appointed officials to carry out their commands.Egyptian people served pharaohs because they believed the kingdom depended on one strong leader.(page 48)
42 Old Kingdom Rulers (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomOld Kingdom Rulers (cont.)They also believed the pharaohs were the sons of Re, the sun god.The thought pharaohs were gods on earth.(page 48)
43 Egypt’s Old KingdomHow did people show respect to pharaohs?People bowed down or touched their heads to the ground and played music when the pharaoh appeared in public.
44 Egypt’s Religion Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses, or deities.These deities controlled every human activity and all natural forces.The major god was Re, the sun god.Another major god was Hapi, who ruled the Nile River.Isis was the most important goddess.(pages 49–50)
45 Egypt’s Religion (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomEgypt’s Religion (cont.)Egyptians believed in life after death.The Book of the Dead contained a collections of spells that Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife.Egyptians believed only pharaohs and a few elite people could have life after death.(pages 49–50)
46 Egypt’s Religion (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomEgypt’s Religion (cont.)To protect the pharaoh’s body after death, Egyptians developed an embalming process.During the process, the body’s organs were removed.The body was treated with spices and oils and then wrapped with strips of linen.(pages 49–50)
47 Egypt’s Religion (cont.) Egypt’s Old KingdomEgypt’s Religion (cont.)The wrapped body was called a mummy.Egyptian doctors used herbs and drugs to treat illnesses.They also set broken bones and stitched cuts.Egyptian doctors were the first doctors to specialize in different areas of medicine, and they wrote the world’s first medical book.(pages 49–50)
48 Egypt’s Old KingdomWhy was it important for pharaohs to reach the afterlife?Egyptians believed pharaohs would continue to care for Egypt once they reached the afterlife.
49 The Pyramids Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egyptians built pyramids to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs.The pyramids also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife.A pyramid took thousands of people and years of labor to build.(pages 50–52)
50 The Pyramids (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom Egyptians used astronomy and mathematics to create the pyramids.To build a pyramid, Egyptians first selected a site.Then, they searched for stone.The artisans cut the stone into blocks, and other workers tied the stone to sleds and pulled them to the Nile.(pages 50–52)
51 Egypt’s Old KingdomThe Pyramids (cont.)(pages 50–52)
52 The Pyramids (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom At the river, workers loaded the stones onto barges and floated them to the site.There, the blocks were unloaded and dragged or pushed up ramps.While studying the skies to create pyramids, Egyptians created the 365-day calendar that became the basis for our calendar today.(pages 50–52)
53 The Pyramids (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom The Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid in Egypt.It was built for King Khufu and is located near the city of Cairo.(pages 50–52)
54 Egypt’s Old KingdomWhat mathematical advances did the Egyptians make while working on the pyramids?They invented the base-10 number system and created fractions.
55 Egypt’s Old KingdomHow was stone for a pyramid transported to the building site?Cut blocks were placed on a sled and dragged over a path of logs to the Nile, then floated on a barge to the building site.
56 Egypt’s Old Kingdom What did Egyptians learn from embalming bodies? They learned the use of herbs and drugs to treat illnesses, and how to sew up cuts and set broken bones.
57 Egypt’s Old KingdomMath/Science Link How did the building of the pyramids lead to advances in science and mathematics?The Egyptians used astronomy to find true north. They developed the 12-month calendar and a number system based on 10.
58 Egypt’s Old KingdomCompare and Contrast How did the Egyptians’ religious beliefs compare to those of the Mesopotamians?Both believed in many gods and goddesses. Mesopotamians took a gloomy view of the afterlife; Egyptians took a hopeful view.
59 Egypt’s Old KingdomPersuasive Writing Suppose you are an Egyptian pharaoh who wants a pyramid built to house your tomb. Write a letter to the farmers and workers in your kingdom explaining why it is their duty to build the pyramid for you.Answers will vary.
60 Egypt’s Old KingdomName some of the achievements made during the Old Kingdom.
62 Get Ready to Read Section Overview The Egyptian Empire This section discusses the cultural advances and territorial expansion that occurred during the Middle and New Kingdoms.
63 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasThe Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture.During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power.
64 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.)Akhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion, while Tutankhamen is famous for the treasures found in his tomb.Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C.
65 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesThebes (THEEBZ)Meeting PeopleAhmose (AHM·OHS)Hatshepsut (hat·SHEHP·soot)Thutmose III (thoot·MOH·suh)Akhenaton (AHK·NAH·tuhn)
66 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireGet Ready to Read (cont.)Meeting PeopleTutankhamen (TOO·tang·KAH·muhn)Ramses II (RAM·SEEZ)Building Your Vocabularytribute (TRIH·byoot)incense (IHN·SEHNS)
67 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy The Egyptian EmpireGet Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyCategorizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 59 of your textbook to show the major accomplishments of Ramses II.
68 The Middle Kingdom The Egyptian Empire Pharaohs lost control of Egypt in about 2300 B.C.At that time, a new dynasty of pharaohs created a capital at Thebes.This began the Middle Kingdom, a time of stability, prosperity, and achievement.Egypt took control of other lands and forced conquered people to send tribute, or forced payments.(pages 60–61)
69 The Middle Kingdom (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireThe Middle Kingdom (cont.)In this way, Egypt increased its riches.During the Middle Kingdom, the arts, literature, and architecture blossomed.The Middle Kingdom ended when the Hyksos attacked and conquered Egypt.The Hyksos ruled until around 1500 B.C., when the Egyptian prince Ahmose led a revolt to drive the Hyksos out of Egypt.(pages 60–61)
70 The Middle Kingdom (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireThe Middle Kingdom (cont.)This artwork with gold inlay from the Middle Kingdom period shows a funeral boat.(pages 60–61)
71 The Egyptian EmpireWhy do you think arts, literature, and architecture flourished during the Middle Kingdom period?It was a period of political stability and economic prosperity.
72 The New Kingdom The Egyptian Empire During the New Kingdom period, Egypt grew richer and more powerful.Hatshepsut was one of the few women to rule Egypt.Trade grew during Hatsheput’s reign.Traders exchanged beads, tools, and weapons for ivory, wood, leopard skins, and incense.Trade made Egypt wealthier.(pages 61–62)
73 The New Kingdom (cont.) The Egyptian Empire Thutmose III became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s death.Thutmose conquered more lands, and Egypt grew richer from tributes.Slavery became common in Thutmose’s reign.Slaves had some rights.They could own land, marry, and eventually obtain freedom.(pages 61–62)
74 The Egyptian EmpireHow was Hatshepsut unlike other pharaohs?She focused on trade instead of military conquests.
75 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs The Egyptian EmpireThe Legacies of Two PharaohsAmenhotep IV came to power in 1370 B.C.Amenhotep felt priests were gaining too much power.He introduced a new religion with only one god.Priests who did not follow the new religion were removed from power.(pages 64–65)
76 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireThe Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.)Most Egyptians refused to accept the new religion.Amenhotep became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his other duties.He did not act when the Hittites attacked Egypt.As a result, Egypt’s empire greatly diminished.(pages 64–65)
77 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireThe Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.)Tutankhamen, now called King Tut, was a boy ruler who took power after Akhenaton died.He ruled for only nine years before his death.In A.D. 1922, a British archaeologist found King Tut’s grave.(pages 64–65)
78 The Egyptian EmpireWhat happened as a result of the removal of the priests?The priests were experienced in ruling Egypt. When Amenhotep neglected his duties, the priests were no longer available to make important decisions.
79 The End of the New Kingdom The Egyptian EmpireThe End of the New KingdomRamses II was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom.During Ramses’s rule, many temples were built throughout Egypt.Temples were used for services.Most Egyptians prayed at home because they believed the temples were houses for the gods and goddesses.(pages 65–67)
80 The End of the New Kingdom (cont.) The Egyptian EmpireThe End of the New Kingdom (cont.)After Ramses’s rule, Egyptian rule began to decline.Egypt was attacked by neighboring groups and eventually controlled only the Nile delta.Beginning in the 900s B.C., Egypt was ruled by the Libyans, then the people of Kush, and finally the Assyrians.(pages 65–67)
81 The Egyptian EmpireIn addition to religious purposes, what other purpose did the temples serve?The temples also served as banks. People stored valuable items in the temples, such as jewelry and oils.
82 The Egyptian EmpireWhat improvements did the Middle Kingdom rulers make?They added more waterways and dams for irrigation, increased the amount of land used for farming, built a canal between the Nile River and Red Sea, and improved art and architecture.
83 The Egyptian Empire What purposes did temples serve in Egypt? Temple were houses for gods and goddesses, places for priests to perform rituals, banks, and warehouses.
84 The Egyptian EmpireEvaluate What was unusual about the reign of Hatshepsut?She was the first woman to rule Egypt in her own right.
85 The Egyptian EmpireAnalyze How did Akhenaton upset the traditional order?He stopped worship of old gods in favor of one god.
86 The Egyptian EmpireCompare and Contrast Describe the similarities and differences between the rule of Hatshepsut and Ramses II?Similarities: built many temples;Differences: Hatshepsut increased Egypt’s wealth through trade; Ramses II waged war to expand the empire.
87 The Egyptian EmpireCreate a list of Egyptian achievements during the Middle and New Kingdoms.
89 Get Ready to Read Section Overview The Civilization of Kush This section traces how the Nubians built the civilization of Kush, which eventually took control of Egypt.
90 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Civilization of KushGet Ready to Read (cont.)Focusing on the Main IdeasTo the south of Egypt, the Nubians settled in farming villages and became strong warriors.The people of Kush devoted themselves to ironworking and grew wealthy from trade.
91 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Civilization of KushGet Ready to Read (cont.)Locating PlacesNubia (NOO·bee·uh)Kush (KUHSH)Kerma (Kar·muh)Napata (NA·puh·tuh)Meroë (MEHR·oh·ee)
92 Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Civilization of KushGet Ready to Read (cont.)Meeting PeopleKashta (KAHSH·tuh)Piye (PY)Building Your Vocabularysavanna (suh·VA·nuh)
93 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy The Civilization of KushGet Ready to Read (cont.)Reading StrategyCompare and Contrast Use a Venn diagram like the one on page 68 of your textbook, to show the similarities and differences between Napata and Meroë.
94 Nubia The Civilization of Kush The region of Nubia, later known as Kush, was located south of Egypt on the Nile River.The first people to arrive in Nubia were cattle herders, who grazed their herds on the savanna.A savanna is a grassy plain.Later, farmers settled in villages in Nubia.(pages 69–70)
95 Nubia (cont.) The Civilization of Kush More powerful Nubian villages took control of weaker ones, and the kingdom of Kerma was created.People of Kerma traded with the Egyptians, and Kerma became wealthy.The kings of Kerma were buried in tombs like the Egyptian pharaohs.(pages 69–70)
96 Nubia (cont.) The Civilization of Kush Egypt invaded Kerma, and after 50 years of war, Kerma was defeated.During Egyptian rule, the people of Kerma adopted many of the Egyptian ways.(pages 69–70)
97 The Civilization of Kush Before the invasion by Egypt, how did the people of Kerma help the Egyptians?The people of Kerma traded with the Egyptians and served as warriors in the Egyptian armies.
98 The Rise of Kush The Civilization of Kush Nubians broke away from Egypt and formed their own kingdom called Kush.The Kushite kings ruled from the city of Napata, which was located along the upper Nile.This location helped the Kush people become important traders, and Kush grew wealthy.(pages 70–72)
99 The Rise of Kush (cont.) The Civilization of Kush A king named Kashta and his son, Piye conquered Egypt in 728 B.C.The Assyrians later invaded Egypt and forced the Kushites out.The Kushites learned iron working from the Assyrians.The Kushites were the first Africans to become iron workers.(pages 70–72)
100 The Rise of Kush (cont.) The Civilization of Kush Kush moved the ruling city south to the city of Meroë, farther away from the Assyrians.Monroë became an important center of trade and iron working.Kushite kings rebuilt Meroë to look like Egypt, with pyramids and temples.(pages 70–72)
101 The Rise of Kush (cont.) The Civilization of Kush Kush eventually declined in power, and the kingdom of Axum rose up.Axum invaded Meroë and burned it to the ground.(pages 70–72)
102 The Civilization of Kush How did iron working skills help the Kushites?They could make farming tools with iron. These superior tools helped them grow more crops. They also could make iron spears and swords. Traders also traded iron to other peoples.
103 The Civilization of Kush Who were the Nubians?The Nubians were cattle herders in the savannas and founders of Kerma.
104 The Civilization of Kush What were the Kushites’ most important economic activities?The Kushites’ most important economic activities were trade and ironworking.
105 The Civilization of Kush Geography Skills Why was Napata’s location advantageous?It was located at a point where trade caravans crossed the Nile.
106 The Civilization of Kush Analyze How did the Kushite kings demonstrate their admiration for Egyptian culture?They built similar monuments, temples, and pyramids.
107 The Civilization of Kush Compare Describe the similarities between Kush and Egypt?Possible answers: Kush modeled architecture on Egypt; both profited from trade along the Nile.
108 The Civilization of Kush Discuss how geography linked Kush and Egypt.
110 Section 1: The Nile Valley Ancient EgyptSection 1: The Nile ValleyFocusing on the Main IdeasBy 5000 B.C., Egyptian civilization arose in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions.The Egyptians depended on the Nile’s floods to grow their crops.Around 3100 B.C., Egypt’s two major kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, were combined into one.Egyptian society was divided into social groups based on wealth and power.
111 Section 2: Egypt’s Old Kingdom Ancient EgyptSection 2: Egypt’s Old KingdomFocusing on the Main IdeasEgypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs.The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs.The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs.
112 Section 3: The Egyptian Empire Ancient EgyptSection 3: The Egyptian EmpireFocusing on the Main IdeasThe Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture.During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power.
113 Section 3: The Egyptian Empire Ancient EgyptSection 3: The Egyptian EmpireFocusing on the Main IdeasAkhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion, while Tutankhamen is famous for the treasures found in his tomb.Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C.
114 Section 4: The Civilization of Kush Ancient EgyptSection 4: The Civilization of KushFocusing on the Main IdeasTo the south of Egypt, the Nubians settled in farming villages and became strong warriors.The people of Kush devoted themselves to ironworking and grew wealthy from trade.
116 Ancient Egypt Review Vocabulary Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence.__ 1. area of fertile soil at the end of a river__ 2. reed plant used to make baskets, rafts, and paper__ 3. grassy plain__ 4. rapids__ 5. Egyptian writing system__ 6. forced payments__ 7. title for Egyptian leadersDA. savannaB. tributeC. cataractD. deltahieroglyphicspharaohpapyrusGACEBF
117 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Section 1 The Nile ValleyWhat natural barriers protected Egypt from invasion?deserts, cataracts in the Nile, and delta marshes
118 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Section 1 The Nile ValleyWhat factors divided Egyptians into social groups?wealth and power
119 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Section 2 Egypt’s Old KingdomWhat were the Egyptians’ religious beliefs?They believed in many gods and goddesses and in an afterlife.
120 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Section 2 Egypt’s Old KingdomWhere did Egyptians of the Old Kingdom bury their pharaohs?They buried pharaohs in large tombs, often in pyramids.
121 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Section 3 The Egyptian EmpireWhy was the Middle Kingdom called a golden age?It was a time of prosperity, the empire was strong, and advances were made in the arts and architecture.
122 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Section 3 The Egyptian EmpireWhy are Akhenaton and Tutankhamen well-known?Akhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion. Tutankhamen’s tomb was found with many treasures.
123 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas Where did the Nubians live? Section 4 The Civilization of KushWhere did the Nubians live?The Nubians lived on the Nile in present-day Sudan.
124 Ancient Egypt Review Main Ideas What made the Kushites wealthy? Section 4 The Civilization of KushWhat made the Kushites wealthy?Trade and iron gave them superior weapons and better farming tools.
125 Ancient EgyptDescribe Identify the four social groups in ancient Egypt, and explain who belonged to each group.Top: pharaoh and royal family; Upper class: priests, army commanders, and nobles; Middle class: traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and other skilled workers; Lower class: unskilled workers and farmers.
126 Ancient EgyptSynthesize How do you think religious leaders reacted to Akhenaton’s changes?Religious leaders probably resisted because Akhenaton’s changes would result their loss of power and would challenge their belief systems.
127 Ancient EgyptAnalyze Do you agree that Egyptian civilization can be called “the Gift of the Nile”? Explain.Answers will vary, but you should note how much Egyptians relied on the Nile.
128 Ancient EgyptCompare In what ways did Meroë look like an Egyptian city?Meroë had small pyramids, a huge temple at the end of a grand avenue lined with sculptures, and decorated walls.
130 Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 2-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
131 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. MapsAncient Egypt c B.C.Egyptian KingdomsKush Kingdom c. 250 B.C.ChartComparing Mesopotamia to EgyptClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
136 The Nile ValleyAfter developing their method of papermaking using papyrus, the Egyptians kept the process secret, so others could not make paper. In this way, papyrus became even more valuable.
137 Egypt’s Old KingdomMyths are stories people use to understand nature and their place in the world. Egyptian mythology was based on nature; the sky, sun, stars, and moon; and the Nile River.
138 The Egyptian EmpireThe city of Thebes contains more than 60 tombs. One of the first archaeological digs in Thebes occurred in Four archaeological expeditions are currently at work in the area.
139 The Civilization of Kush The upper class in ancient Egypt had indoor bathrooms, though they did not have running water.
140 Reading Social Studies Learn It!What Do You Predict?A prediction is a guess based on what you already know. Making predictions before you read can help you understand and remember what you read.How do you make predictions? Read the Main Ideas on the next slide. They were taken from the opening page of Section 2 on page 47 in your textbook. Use these main ideas to make predictions about what you will read in this chapter.
141 Reading Social Studies Predict what the term “all-powerful” means.Egypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs.The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs.The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs.What does “life after death” mean?Can you predict what tools the Egyptians used to build the pyramids?—from page 47
142 Reading Social Studies Practice It!Making PredictionsRead the paragraph from Chapter 2 on page 37 of your textbook.Make at least one prediction about each of the main ideas.Write down each prediction.Then, as you read this section, decide if your predictions were correct.
150 From Farming to Food Focus on Everyday Life Harvesting wheat and turning it into bread was vital to the ancient Egyptians. Some people were full-time farmers, but many others were drafted by the government to help during busy seasons. The process began as men cut the wheat with wooden sickles and women gathered it into bundles. Animals trampled the wheat to separate the kernels from the husks. The grain w was then thrown into the air so the wind w would carry away the lightweight seed c coverings. Finally, the grain was stored I in silos for later use.
151 From Farming to Food Focus on Everyday Life Turning grain into bread was a long process. Women ground the grain into flour, then men pounded it until it became very fine. For the wealthy, seeds, honey, fruit, nuts, and herbs were added to the dough for flavor. Unfortunately, it was almost impossible to keep small stones and sand out of the flour. As a result, many Egyptians developed tooth decay as these particles wore down their tooth enamel.
152 Focus on Everyday Life1. How did the government ensure that enough people were available to harvest the wheat?The government drafted people to help during the busy seasons.2. Why do you think seeds, fruit, and other additives were reserved for the wealthy?Those additives might have been expensive or hard to obtain.
153 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding biography. HatshepsutRamses IIClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding biography.
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