2 12.1 Stoichiometry Chemical reactions represent the heart of chemistry: they describe the endless ways that substances can combine with each other to form new substances. In essence, they describe what chemistry really is -- the study of matter and its transformations through Chemical Reactions.
3 Ch 12 Stoichiometry is the area of chemistry which deals with quantitative relationships in chemical reactions. It is the area which allows chemists to know how much starting material is needed to produce a million pounds of sulfuric acid or how many molecules are in a microgram of a particular hormone.
4 When I worked in a semi trailer factory, guess who was highest paid When I worked in a semi trailer factory, guess who was highest paid? Not the factory worker (Minimum wage) Not the welders (4 times minimum wage) Not the foreman (5 times minimum wage) It was the warehouse manager (6 times minimum wage) Why??? He had to know how to do Stoichiometry to produce the correct amount of chemicals needed for production.
5 Stoichiometry Predicting the quantities of products when given the quantities of reagents.
6 Stoichiometry Predicting the quantities of products when given the quantities of reagents. Stoichiometry: Quantities are usually given in grams, kilograms, or pounds.Are chemical equations in grams?
7 Stoichiometry Predicting the quantities of products when given the quantities of reagents. Quantities are usually given in grams, kilograms, or pounds.Are chemical equations in grams? No, in representative particles or moles.Usually we have to:1. Convert from grams to moles.2. Work equations with moles.3. Convert moles back to grams.
8 What is the mass of 2 moles of F2? How much is in 2 moles of F2?(written as 2 F2 )Moles = 2 moles of F2Molecules = 2 molecules of F (or 2 x 6.02 x 1023 molecules)Atoms = 4 atoms F (or 4 x 6.02 x 1023 atoms)Grams = 76g (F has atomic mass of 19)(total grams in 2 moles of F2)Liters = 44.8L (C.F. = 22.4 L per Mole at STP)
9 Stoichiometry (“stoy-key-AHM-uh-tree”) The relationship between the quantities of reactants and products in a chemical reaction (Eqn next page.)
10 From the balanced equation the following information can be obtained. P4(s) Cl2(g) PCl3(s)
13 Mole ratios The ratio of moles given by the balanced equation. N F2 2NF3For every 1 mole of N2 there are 2 moles of NF3 formed (assuming that there is at least 3 F2)Mole Ratios: N2:NF3 is 1 to 2F2:NF3 is 3 to 2
14 Mole to Mole calculations How many moles of ozone O3 will be formed from 6 moles of oxygen O2?
24 C + O2 CO2 1 C atom reacts with 1 O2 molecule to form 1 CO2 molecule 12 C atoms reacts with 12 O2 molecules to form 12 CO2 molecules1 mol C atoms reacts with 1 mol O2 molecules to form 1 mol CO2 moleculesWhat do you need to make 12 mol CO2?
27 12.2 Chemical calculations 1 mole =6.02 x representative particles =molar mass (grams) =22.4L (gases only)
28 Mole ratios2 moles of O3 form 3 moles of O22 O3 3 O2
29 (Gram, molecules, particles, atoms) Remember ALWAYS convert to moles!Then use mole ratio.
30 How many grams of water can be formed from 15g of hydrogen How many grams of water can be formed from 15g of hydrogen? (assume there is unlimited oxygen)2H2 + O2 2H2Og mol hydrogenThen, mole ratio to find waterthen convert moles of water grams
32 How many H2 molecules are needed to make 50g of water How many H2 molecules are needed to make 50g of water? (assume there is unlimited oxygen)2H2 + O2 2H2O
33 50g of water 2H2 + O2 2H2O g H2O moles H2O Moles H2O moles H2 Moles H2 molecules of H2
34 Greenhouse gasesNorth America, consists of the United States and Canada. North America is the highest fossil-fuel, CO2 emitting region of the world with 1.73 billion tons of carbon in This 2002 total is an all-time high for North America and represents a 1.4% increase from Because ~92% of current fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from the region are from the United States, the North America data closely resembles that for the United States.
35 How many L of CO2(g) will be formed from 16 gallons of gasoline (64,000g)? (assume gas is 100% octane)2C8H O2 16CO H2O
36 197,614g = 2.0 x 105100,000L of CO2 made for each 16 gal of gas burned.
37 12.5 g Li g productO2Li + O2 Li2OSLi + S Li2S
38 12.5 g Li Predict g productO2Li + O2 Li2OSLi + S Li2S
39 12.5 g Li Predict g product Step 1, Balance Li + O2 Li2O4Li + 2O2 2Li2OSLi + S Li2S2Li + S Li2S
41 12.5 g Li g product What is your a.)Theoretical Yield b.) Actual Yield c.) Percent YieldLi + O2 Li2OPrevious Ans: You calculate 26.9 g Li2OYou measure the product and there is 25 grams of Li2OLi + S Li2SPrevious Ans: You calculate 41.4 g Li2SYou measure the product and there is 37.0 grams of Li2S
42 12.5 g Li g product Li + O2 Li2O a.)Theoretical Yield 27.0 g Li2O b.) Actual Yield 25 g Li2Oc.) Percent Yield 25/26.9 x100=92.9%Li + S Li2Sa.)Theoretical Yield 41.4 g Li2Sb.) Actual Yield 37.0 g Li2Sc.) Percent Yield 37.0/41.4 x100=89.4%
43 Actual Yield = MEASURED amount (recorded by experiment) Theoretical Yield = CALCULATED amount(What balance equation says we should have produced)Percent Yield is ratio of GRAMS!
44 12.3 limiting reagentslimiting reagent – reactant that will be used up first and cause the reaction to stop producing products
45 Identify the limiting reagent Example Problem (solved on next slide)2Na Cl2 2NaClGivens are starting amounts of each reagentWhich is the limiting reactant?STEPS to find limiting reagent (Balance equation.)1.) Calculate amount of product produced by each reagent.2.) Limiting reagent is the one that produces the least amount of product.3.) Excess reagent is the leftover amounts of the other reagent
46 Identify the limiting reagent 2Na Cl2 NaCl1 mol Na reacts with 1 mol Cl2?Which is the limiting reactant?
47 Identify the excess reagent 2Na Cl2 NaCl1 mol Na reacts with 1 mol Cl2?How much of excess reagent is there?
48 What is the actual equation? 1 Na + 1 Cl2 1 NaCl + ½ Cl2Limiting ExcessReagent Reagent
49 Identify the limiting reagent N O2 NO31.7 mol N2 or 1.3 mol O2
50 Identify the excess reagent. N O2 NO31.7 mol N2 or 1.3 mol O2
51 58g of Na are reacted with 110g of S how much product will be formed 58g of Na are reacted with 110g of S how much product will be formed? 2Na S Na2S Discuss steps
52 What is the percent yield if 170g of sodium sulfide was produced What is the percent yield if 170g of sodium sulfide was produced? (see previous problem)Because of human error, measurement error, contaminated reactants, experimental error, ect… there will usually be less than 100% yield, meaning that less products will be produced then you calculated for.
53 15. 5g of H2 is reacted with 155g of O2 15.5g of H2 is reacted with 155g of O2. What is the percent yield if 136g of H2O has been collected? 2H2 + O2 2H2O
54 ANSWER: 15. 5g of H2 is reacted with 155g of O2 ANSWER: 15.5g of H2 is reacted with 155g of O2. What is the percent yield if 136g of H2O has been collected? 2H2 + O2 2H2O 97.1%
55 SUMMARYWrite the balanced equation.Convert variables to moles.Find the moles of each reactant needed based on the amount of the other reactant given (use Na to find S).Identify the limiting reagent.Solve for the amounts of reactants needed and products formed.