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By The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan.

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Presentation on theme: "By The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan."— Presentation transcript:

1 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan

2 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Improved reactive dye fixation in pad-steam dyeing of cotton using a biodegradable organic salt Awais Khatri CText ATI LSDC BE Textile Engineering (MUET Pakistan) Diploma in Coloration (SDC UK) PhD Textiles (RMIT Australia) Department of Textile Engineering Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro – Sindh Pakistan

3 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Natural comfort and performance of cotton fibre Covalent bond that is formed between the fibre polymer and the dye molecules - leads to excellent colourfastness to washing An exceptionally wide gamut of brilliant colours possible in all hues Versatility of the dyes for different application methods ‘Reactive dyes – cotton’ a predominant dye-fibre combination

4 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Environmental Issues ‘Polluted effluent’ High levels of dissolved solids and oxygen demand in the effluent because of unfixed dye - Hydrolysed dye - Unreacted dye Washing-off to remove unfixed dye Typical dye fixation efficiency is 50 – 80% use of nonbiodegradable inorganic chemicals - Electrolyte - Alkali - Urea (printing and pad dyeings)

5 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Developments to reduce effluent pollution Developments in reactive dye structures Development in dyeing processes and machinery Chemical modification of cotton fibre prior to dyeing Use of organic compounds in place of inorganic chemicals

6 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Biodegradable alkaline organic salts Use of tetrasodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate in exhaust dyeing (Ahmed, 2005) Use of trisodium nitrilo triacetate in continuous pad-steam dyeing (Khatri et al, 2010) This work… Use of tetrasodium N,N-bis(carboxylatomethyl)-L-glutamate ( tetrasodium GLDA ) in pad-steam dyeing

7 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Pad-steam dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes Padding (dye, salt and alkali) - salt favours increased dye levelness in the fibre - alkali activates dye-fibre reaction Steaming (saturated) for 60 – 120 sec Washing-off Lower fixation levels because of excessive dye hydrolysis!

8 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Focus of the paper Improvements in fixation efficiency of a bis(sulphatoethylsulphone) dye by using the tetrasodium GLDA

9 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Material and methods Material Mill scoured and bleached cotton woven fabric (282 g/m 2 ) CI Reactive Blue 250, a bis (sulphatoethylsulphone) dye The Felosan RGN-S, a non-ionic detergent, for washing-off Analytical grade sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and tetrasodium GLDA Dyeing Padding: 70% liquor pick-up, 20 g/l dye and the relevant sodium chloride and sodium carbonate or tetrasodium GLDA Steaming: wet-temperature of 101 – 102 o C, 100% moisture, for 60, 90 and 120 sec Washing-off: Rinsing with cold then hot water; soaping with 2 g/l Felosan RGN-S at the boil for 15 min; Rinsing with hot water until bleeding stopped; Rinsing with cold water and oven drying Measurements Final colour yield ( K/S ) = Colour strength after washing-off The percentage of reactive dye fixed on the fabric, %F = [( K/S ) / ( K/S before washing )] x 100 Colourfastness to rubbing (ISO X12), washing (ISO C02) and light (BS 1006: 1990 UK- TN)

10 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Optimum inorganic salt and alkali Effect of sodium chloride concentration on colour yield at constant sodium carbonate (15 g/l) Effect of sodium carbonate concentration on dye fixation at constant sodium chloride (50 g/l) 20 g/l CI Reactive Blue 250 at 60 sec steaming

11 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Effect of tetrasodium GLDA concentration Effect of tetrasodium GLDA concentration on colour fixation and yield of 20 g/l CI Reactive Blue 250 at 60 sec steaming

12 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Tetrasodium GLDA dyeing versus traditional dyeing Effect of steaming time on colour yield and dye fixation of 20 g/l CI Reactive Blue 250 (20 g/l) at constant tetrasodium GLDA and inorganic chemicals concentrations Comparative effect of steaming time, colour yield and dye fixation

13 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Tetrasodium GLDA dyeing versus traditional dyeing Comparative colourfastness Pad-steam dyeings Colour yield (K/S) Rubbing fastness Washing fastness Light fastness DryWet Change in colour Staining on white * Blue wool reference Traditional 50 g/l sodium chloride 15 g/l sodium carbonate Tetrasodium GLDA (40 g/l) * Secondary cellulose acetate, cotton, polyacrylonitrile, polyester, polyamide and wool

14 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan The tetrasodium GLDA, a biodegradable organic salt, can effectively be used for pad-steam dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes to replace inorganic salt and alkali, thus to reduce effluent load. A significant increase in dye fixation and colour yield of a bis (sulphatoethylsulphone) dye was obtained using tetrasodium GLDA. The improved dye fixation and ultimate colour yield results are worthy of further investigations. Conclusions

15 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan References Ahmed, N. S. E. (2005). The use of sodium edate in the dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes. Dyes and Pigments, 65(3), Anderson, C. B. (1994). Dyeing reactive dyes using less salt. American Dyestuff Reporter, 83(9), Anon. (1996). Ciba introduces low-salt reactive dyeing. Textile Industries Dyegest Southern Africa, 15(5), 5-8. Aspland, J. R. (1992). Practical application of reactive dyes. Textile Chemist and Colorist, 24(6), Bide, M. (2007). Environmentally responsible dye application. In R. M. Christie (Ed.), Environmental Aspects of Textile Dyeing (First ed., pp ): Woodhead Publishing Ltd. Blackburn, R. S., & Burkinshaw, S. M. (2003). Treatment of cellulose with cationic, nucleophilic polymers to enable reactive dyeing at neutral pH without electrolyte addition. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 89(4), Broadbent, A. D. (2005). Reactive dyes. In A. D. Broadbent (Ed.), Basic Principles of Textile Coloration (First ed., pp ): Society of Dyers and Colourists. Burkinshaw, S. M., Mignanelli, M., Froehling, P. E., & Bide, M. J. (2000). The use of dendrimers to modify the dyeing behaviour of reactive dyes on cotton. Dyes and Pigments, 47(3), Chattopadhyay, D. P., Chavan, R. B., & Sharma, J. K. (2007). Salt-free reactive dyeing of cotton. International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 19(2), Guan, Y., Zheng, Q., Mao, Y., Gui, M., & Fu, H.. (2007). Application of polycarboxylic acid sodium salt in the dyeing of cotton fabric with reactive dyes. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 105(2), Hinks, D., Burkinshaw, S. M., Lewis, D. M., & Renfrew, A. H. M. (2001). Cationic fiber reactive dyes for cellulosic fibers. AATCC Review, 1(5), Kannan, M. S. S., & Nithyanandan, R. (2006). Salt and alkali free reactive dyeing on cotton. ATA Journal, 17(4). Khatri, A., Padhye, R., White, M., & Cowlishaw, K. (2010, March). Biodegradable organic salts for reactive dyeing of cotton. Paper presented at the Fashion: Sustainability and Creativity, 12th Annual Conference of the International Foundation of Fashion Technology Institutes, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei Taiwan King, D. (2007). Dyeing of cotton and cotton products. In S. Gordon & Y.-L. Hsieh (Eds.), Cotton: Science and Technology (First ed., pp ): Woodhead Publishing Limited.

16 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Phillips, D. (1996). Environmentally friendly productive and reliable: priorities for cotton dyes and dyeing processes. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists, 112(7-8), Phillips, D. A. S. (1998). The dyeing of cellulosic fibres with reactive dyes. Advances in Colour Science and Technology, 1, Prabu, H. G., & Sundrarajan, M. (2002). Effect of the bio-salt trisodium citrate in the dyeing of cotton. Coloration Technology, 118(3), Renfrew, A. H. M. (1999). Reactive Dyes for Textile Fibres (First ed.): Society of Dyers and Colourists. Rucker, J. W., & Guthrie, D. M. (1997a). Reduction of salt requirements in dyeing cotton with fibre reactive dyes. Paper presented at the AATCC International Conference Exhibition, Book of Papers. Rucker, J. W., & Guthrie, D. M. (1997b). Salt substitute for dyeing cotton with fiber reactive dyes. Sen-I Gakkaishi, 53(8), Shore, J. (1995). Dyeing with reactive dyes. In J. Shore (Ed.), Cellulosics Dyeing (First ed., pp ): Society of Dyers and Colourists. Smith, B. (2003). Wastes from textile processing. In A. L. Andrady (Ed.), Plastics and the Environment (First ed., pp ): John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Srikulkit, K., & Santifuengkul, P. (2000). Salt-free dyeing of cotton cellulose with a model cationic reactive dye. Coloration Technology, 116(12), Taylor, J. A. (2000). Recent developments in reactive dyes. Review of Progress in Coloration, 30, Wang, H., & Lewis, D. M. (2002). Chemical modification of cotton to improve fibre dyeability. Coloration Technology, 118(4), Wang, L., Ma, W., Zhang, S., Teng, X., & Yang, J. (2009). Preparation of cationic cotton with two-bath pad-bake process and its application in salt-free dyeing. Carbohydrate Polymers, 78(3), Wersch, K. V. (1997). Processes for dyeing cellulosic fibres with reactive dyes. International Textile Bulletin. Dyeing/Printing/Finishing, 43(1), Zhang, S., Ma, W., Ju, B., Dang, N., Zhang, M., Wu, S. (2005). Continuous dyeing of cationised cotton with reactive dyes. Coloration Technology, 121(4), References

17 by The Textile Institute UK, Society of Dyers and Colourists Pakistan and University of Management and Technology Pakistan Thank you …


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