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a university for the world real R © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Chapter 1 Introduction Wil van der Aalst Michael Adams Arthur ter Hofstede Nick Russel
a university for the world real R 2 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Business Process Management (BPM) BPM views processes as central in an organization Potential for substantial cost & time savings (e.g. business process improvement) Managerial and technical ramifications
a university for the world real R 3 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Business Process Automation In order to fully capitalize on modeling efforts, process models should serve as the blueprint for subsequent automated support Process automation (through a BPMS) offers a number of benefits: –Adherence to the process model (compliance) –Explicit representation of control-flow Process model changes do not require low-level coding efforts –Explicit representation of resource involvement Work can directly be routed to the right resources Aspects such as workload and work history can be taken into account in work assignment –Coupling of processes and data assists with data accuracy –Monitoring support Identification and resolution of bottlenecks –Post-execution analysis (process mining) Identification of opportunities for process improvement
a university for the world real R 4 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org BPM Life-Cycle
a university for the world real R 5 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Business Process Automation No consensus has been reached irt to describing executable business processes Main causes: –Complexity of business processes –Failure of standardization efforts
a university for the world real R 6 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org On the Role of Models Insight Analysis –Performance –Verification Enactment
a university for the world real R 7 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org On the Role of Models
a university for the world real R 8 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org BPM Standard Approaches XPDL 1.0 –WfMC (nineties) –Aimed to support interoperability –Minimalistic –Not well defined BPEL –Merger of IBM’s WSFL and Microsoft’s XLANG –Largely, though not fully, block-structured –More powerful than predecessors –No support for involvement of human resources –No graphical representation (rather XML is used)
a university for the world real R 9 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org BPM Standard Approaches (cont’d) BPMN (pre 2.0) –Graphical front-end –Not executable directly, transformation required –Graph-structured rather than block-structured Mapping to BPEL not straightforward –Fairly strong support for specification of control-flow dependencies –Lacking sufficient support for involvement of human resources –Not formally defined XPDL 2.0 –XML serialization of BPMN
a university for the world real R 10 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org BPM Standard Approaches (cont’d) Event-driven Process Chains (EPCs) –A-W Scheer, early nineties –Supported by ARIS environment –Not a standard, though widely used (esp. Germany) –Not very expressive –Not executable –Extensions exist for data and resources –Formalized by Wil van der Aalst (1999), OR-join connector probematic though due to “vicious circles”
a university for the world real R 11 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org BPM Standard Approaches (cont’d) UML Activity Diagrams –OMG –Version 1.4 based on state charts –Version 2.0 inspired by Petri nets Concept of place missing though (hence difficult to represent certain scenarios) No direct mapping No simple and clear semantics –Not intended for direct execution –No OMG endorsed formalization –Eclipsed by BPMN for business process specification
a university for the world real R 12 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org The Workflow Patterns Initiative Joint initiative by Eindhoven University of Technology (the Netherlands) and Queensland University of Technology (Australia) started in 1999 Aims to address lack of commonly accepted foundation for workflow management –WfMC’s proposal lacked precision and expressiveness This foundation provides: –Unbiased comparison of approaches to business process specification –Basis for adaptation and refinement of such approaches Emphasis on suitability rather than on expressive power Patterns-based approach –Technology independent –Description, motivation, issues, solutions –Three point evaluation scale
a university for the world real R 13 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Exception P:s Exception handling in a process CAiSE’2006 N. Russell W. van der Aalst A. ter Hofstede Jun 2006 Control-flow P:s 43 - 23 new patterns - Formalised in CPN notation TR N. Russell A. ter Hofstede W. van der Aalst N. Mulyar Sep 2006 revised Oct 2005 Data P:s - 40 N. Russell A. ter Hofstede D. Edmond W. van der Aalst Data representation and handling in a process ER’2005 Jun 2005 Resource P:s - 43 Resource definition & work distribution in a process N. Russell W. van der Aalst A. ter Hofstede D. Edmond CAiSE’2005 The Workflow Patterns Framework - Timeline time These perspectives follow S. Jablonski and C. Bussler’s classification from: Workflow Management: Modeling Concepts, Architecture, and Implementation. International Thomson Computer Press, 1996 Control-flow P:s 20 W. van der Aalst A. ter Hofstede B. Kiepuszewski A. Barros The ordering of activities in a process 2000 CoopIS’2000 DAPD’2003 2003 www.workflowpatterns.com
a university for the world real R 14 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org The Workflow Patterns Framework - Timeline EvaluatIonsEvaluatIons Control-flow P:s 20 20002003 XPDL, BPEL4WS, BPML, WSFL, XLANG, WSCI, UML AD 1.4 UML AD 2.0, BPMN COSA FLOWer Eastman Meteor Mobile I-Flow Staffware InConcert Domino Workflow Visual Workflow Forte Conductor MQSeries/Workflow SAR R/3 Workflow Verve Workflow Changengine Jun 2005 Resource P:s - 43 BPEL4WS UML AD 2.0 BPMN Staffware WebSphere MQ FLOWer COSA iPlanet XPDL, BPEL4WS UML AD 2.0, BPMN Staffware MQSeries FLOWer COSA Data P:s - 40 Oct 2005 Exception P:s Jun 2006 Staffware WebSphere MQ FLOWer COSA iPlanet XPDL 2.0, BPEL4WS 1.1, BPMN Control-flow P:s 43 Sep 2006 revised Staffware WebSphere MQ WebSphere I.D. FLOWer COSA iPlanet SAP Filenet Oracle BPEL BPEL4WS, XPDL 2.0, UML AD 2.0 BPMN, EPC (ARIS) time L a n g u a g e D e v e l o p m e n t: YAWL
a university for the world real R 15 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Petri nets Defined by Carl Adam Petri in the early sixties Provide formal theory for concurrency (Informal) Definition –Bipartite graph consisting of places (represented by circles) and transitions (represented by bars or boxes) –A marking assigns tokens to places –A transition is enabled when all its input places contain at least one token –An enabled transition can fire, which removes a token from each of its input places and produces a token for each of its output places Their suitability for workflow specification was argued by Wil van der Aalst in the nineties: –Graphical nature –Direct support for the notion of state –Existence of a variety of analysis techniques
a university for the world real R 16 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Petri nets: A Simple Example Obtain Quote Have Car Fixed Buy New Car Settle Bill Lodge Preliminary Insurance Claim Lodge Final Insurance Claim
a university for the world real R 17 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Workflow nets Defined by Wil van der Aalst in the mid nineties (Informal) Definition: –Petri net with unique input and unique output place –All elements are on a path from the input place to the output place Graphical abbreviations for XOR/AND splits and joins Automated verification support provided by Woflan (Workflow Analyzer), ProM, WoPeD
a university for the world real R 18 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Emergence of YAWL Defined by Wil van der Aalst and Arthur ter Hofstede in 2002 Yet Another Workflow Language Intention: to provide comprehensive support for the workflow patterns Inspired by Workflow nets, but with direct support for –Cancelation –Multiple executions of the same task in the same process instance –Synchronization of active paths only (OR-join) Formal semantics Reset nets useful for reasoning about YAWL nets –Reset nets are Petri nets with a special reset arc –A reset arc with source place p and target transition t removes all tokens from p upon firing t
a university for the world real R 19 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org YAWL: A Simple Example Obtain Quote Have Car Fixed Buy New Car Settle Bill Lodge Preliminary Insurance Claim Lodge Final Insurance Claim
a university for the world real R 20 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org YAWL Support Environment Development started in 2003 Build time –Editor Runtime –Engine (control-flow and data) –Resource Service (resources) –…. www.yawlfoundation.org
a university for the world real R 21 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org YAWL Editor Screen Shot
a university for the world real R 22 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org YAWL Engine – Worklist Screenshot
a university for the world real R 23 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org YAWL System – Sample Work Item
a university for the world real R 24 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org YAWL System – Simplified Architecture YAWL Engine Persisted Data Event Log Process Designer Org Data Event Logs Admin Users Applications Other Custom Services Process Repository Interfaces Resource Service
a university for the world real R 25 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Positioning of YAWL Comprehensive approach for the Workflow Patterns –Not through a “construct-per-pattern” approach as in BPMN –Original control-flow patterns, resource patterns, and exception handling patterns Formal semantics –Original definition of YAWL: state-transition system –Latest definition: CPN (Colored Petri nets) interpreter –This removes ambiguity and provides opportunities for verification Sophisticated flexibility support –Exceptions –Dynamic workflow –Declarative workflow
a university for the world real R 26 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Positioning of YAWL environment Support environment is open source –Currently LGPL –No acquisition costs –Avoids vendor lock-in Service-oriented architecture –Facilitates integration with other systems and extensions Link with ProM (Process Mining) environment –Log analysis –Simulation based on current state Benefits of BPMN can be leveraged –YAWL supports arbitrary cycles (in contrast to BPEL) –BPMN2YAWL plugin
a university for the world real R 27 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Overview Part II: Concepts Part III: Flexibility and Change Part IV: The Core System Part V: Services Part VI: Positioning Part VII: Advanced Topics Part VIII: Case Studies Part IX: Epilogue Appendix A: Order Fulfilment Example www.yawlbook.com
a university for the world real R 28 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org Credits and References Thanks for Petia Wohed for creating the slides showing the history of the Workflow Patterns initiative W.M.P. van der Aalst. Three good reasons for using a Petri-net-based workﬂow management system. In S. Navathe and T. Wakayama, editors, Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Information and Process Integration in Enterprises (IPIC’96), pages 179–201, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, November 1996. W.M.P. van der Aalst. The application of Petri nets to workﬂow management. The Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, 8(1):21–66, 1998. W.M.P. van der Aalst. Formalization and veriﬁcation of Event-driven Process Chains. Information and Software Technology, 41(10):639–650, 1999.
a university for the world real R 29 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org References (cont’d) W.M.P. van der Aalst, L. Aldred, M. Dumas, and A.H.M. ter Hofstede. Design and Implementation of the YAWL System. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems (CAiSE'2004), Riga, Latvia, June 2004. Springer Verlag. W.M.P. van der Aalst and A.H.M. ter Hofstede. Workflow Patterns: On the Expressive Power of (Petri-net-based) Workflow Languages (Invited Talk). In K. Jensen, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on the Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets and CPN Tools (CPN 2002), volume 560 of DAIMI, pages 1-20, Aarhus, Denmark, August 2002. W.M.P. van der Aalst and A.H.M. ter Hofstede. YAWL: Yet Another Workflow Language, Information Systems 30(4):245-275, 2005. W.M.P van der Aalst, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, B. Kiepuszewski, and A.P. Barros. Workflow Patterns. Distributed and Parallel Databases, 14(3), pages 5-51, July 2003.
a university for the world real R 30 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org References (cont’d) Nick Russell. Foundations of Process-Aware Information Systems. PhD Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, 2007. N. Russell, W.M.P. van der Aalst, and A.H.M. ter Hofstede. Workflow Exception Patterns. In E. Dubois and K. Pohl, editors, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE 06), volume 4001 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 288- 302. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2006. N. Russell, W.M.P. van der Aalst, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, and D. Edmond. Workflow Resource Patterns: Identification, Representation and Tool Support. In O. Pastor and J. Falcao e Cunha, editors, Proceedings of the 17th Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAiSE'05), volume 3520 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 216-232. Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 2005. Nick Russell and A.H.M. ter Hofstede. Surmounting BPM Challenges: The YAWL Story. Special issue of Computer Science - Research and Development on Flexible Process-aware Information Systems 23(2):67-79, May 2009.
a university for the world real R 31 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org References (cont’d) Nick Russell and A.H.M. ter Hofstede. newYAWL: Towards Workflow 2.0. In K. Jensen and W. van der Aalst, editors, Special issue of LNCS Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency (ToPNoC) II on Concurrency in Process-Aware Information Systems, volume 5460 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 79-97, 2009. Nick Russell, Arthur H.M. ter Hofstede, and Wil M.P. van der Aalst. newYAWL: Specifying a Workflow Reference Language using Coloured Petri Nets. Eighth Workshop and Tutorial on Practical Use of Coloured Petri Nets and the CPN Tools, Aarhus, Denmark, October 2007. N. Russell, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, W.M.P. van der Aalst, and N. Mulyar. Workflow Control-Flow Patterns: A Revised View. BPM Center Report BPM- 06-22, BPMcenter.org, 2006. N. Russell, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, D. Edmond, and W.M.P. van der Aalst. Workflow Data Patterns: Identification, Representation and Tool Support. In L. Delcambre et al., editors, Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2005), volume 3716 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 353-368. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005.
a university for the world real R 32 © 2009, www.yawlfoundation.org References (cont’d) J.L. Peterson. Petri Net Theory and the Modelling of Systems. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, 1981. C.A. Petri. Kommunikation mit Automaten. PhD thesis, Institut für instrumentelle Mathematik, Bonn, Germany, 1962. W. Reisig. Petri Nets, An Introduction. EATCS, Monographs on Theoretical Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1985.
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