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Principles of Communication The Communication Process.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Communication The Communication Process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Communication The Communication Process

2 Chapter 2 Lecture and Discussion: Communication Principles and Techniques Functions of Communication Strategies Processes of Effective Communication Strategies Chapter 3 Case Study Instructor Review Student Q&A SCOPE

3 History of Communications Systems 1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the movable printing press Joseph Niepce of produces the world’s first permanent photographic image Alexander Graham Bell introduced telephone.telephone 1877 Thomas Edison patents the phonograph.phonograph 1891 Thomas Edison and William Dickson invent the kinetoscope.kinetoscope 1895 Guglielmo Marconi develops the wireless telegraph 1925 John Logie Baird transmits the first television signal The transistor radio or tubeless radios become available in the USA 1990 The world wide web is created in Europe. It’s chief architect is Tim Berners-Lee.Tim Berners-Lee

4 Models of communication are not very different from forty years ago. This chapter presents the classic communication models… Shannon's information theory model (the active model) A cybernetic model (the interactive model) An intermediary model (the gatekeeper model) The trans-active model (modern communications) 2.3 Models of the Communication Process

5 Shannon's (1948) model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field. 2.4 Shannon’s Model of the Communication Process

6 Shannon's model breaks down into eight components: 1. Source: An information source... the person sending the information. 2. Message: The message… the information being sent. 3. Transmitter: A transmitter… the tools used to send the information such as the mouth (sound) and body (gesture) create and change a message, and air (sound) and light (gesture) enable the transmission of the message. 2.4 Shannon’s Model of the Communication Process

7 4. Signal: The signal… additional meaning associated with the message such as the language of words being used, or cultural importance of specific gestures and body language. 2.4 Shannon’s Model of the Communication Process

8 5. Channel: A carrier or channel… the method for delivering the information such as words, letters, s, radio waves, etc. 6. Noise: Noise… secondary signals that obscure or confuse the information. Noise can be one person’s words, or even another person’s own thoughts. 7. Receiver: A receiver… the tools used for receiving the information. In face to face communication a set of ears (sound) and eyes (facial expressions). 8. Destination: A destination… the person who receives the message. and understands it? 2.4 Shannon’s Model of the Communication Process

9 Bell's drawing of the workings of a telephone, from his original sketches (source: Bell Family Papers; Library of Congress;

10 A gatekeeper is an intermediary with the ability to decide what messages others see, the context in which they are seen, and when they see them. Sometimes the gatekeeper prevents the message from reaching an audience (destination). In extreme variations we refer to such gatekeepers as censors. 2.5 Derivative Models of the Communication Process

11 Look at this Intermediary (Gatekeeper) Model… Feedback is a message (or a set of messages). The source of feedback is an information source, and the consumer is a destination. Feedback is transmitted, received, and potentially disruptable via noise sources. 2.5 Derivative Models of the Communication Process

12 However, the interactive model does have some usefulness. People adapt their messages based on the feedback they receive. Look at this model… 2.5 Derivative Models of the Communication Process

13 But where Shannon’s interactive model shows feedback from one source, the trans-active model allows for feedback from both communicators. 2.5 Derivative Models of the Communication Process

14 Sometimes communication is not always so clear. Miscommunication still occurs for many different reasons; culture, language, personality, etc. Existing models do not represent this. 2.6 A New Model of the Communication Process

15 2.7 Systems of Communication

16 A system is a collection of parts which are interconnect -ed or related to one another, and which relate to the environment surrounding the system. 2.7 Systems of Communication The idea of a system is like a mobile, which is a device that is constantly changing and interacting with its environment.

17 To understand communication, we must also look at the relationships among the “things” and at the environments in which the “things” reside. The two basic rules of the communication process are… 1.Communication is a process that happens among communicators, and acts to connect them across a space and time. 2.Communication involves the creation, transmission, and reception of messages. 2.8 The Role of Communication

18 Applications in Hospitality EPOS Electronic Point of Sale

19 Applications in Hospitality EPOS Electronic Point of Sale Thinking systematically………….. GuestOrder taker / Waiter GatekeeperTransmitterReceiverDestination Information Source Channel / Medium Printer EPOS Chef

20 Now, take a 30-minute break and then return to the class to work on your term paper focus. Enjoy! Take a break! BREAK!

21 Noise & Context The Context of a Communication External, Internal and Semantic Noise

22 Take 15-minutes to compare your case study summaries with a partner and create a revised idea to present. Case Study Review

23 You will now be given a handout with comprehension questions. Use the book and the notes you’ve taken to answer the questions as best as possible. You have 45-minutes to complete the handouts and return them to the instructor at the end of class. Handout Review

24 Go to the copy shop next to the canteen and get a copy of Unit 3: Perception and Self. Read Unit 3 and complete sections 3.1 Key Vocabulary and Chapter 3 Review: Case Study. HOMEWORK!


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