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Examining Core Instruction in an RtI Model Kay Stahl

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1 Examining Core Instruction in an RtI Model Kay Stahl

2 GOALS: 1.Define the parameters of a research-based Tier 1 model 2.Define the role that Tier 1 plays within an RTI model 3.Design a preliminary roadmap for supporting the establishment of a research-based Tier 1 model

3 Define the parameters of a research- based Tier 1 model General Education All students Tier 1 T2 3

4 4 Define the parameters of a research- based Tier 1 model Do you know the difference? Research-based Research Validated Journal descriptions of educational practices Scientifically validated Scientifically based

5 A Few Examples

6 6 Activity 1:Can you Categorize the Following Practices? Calkin’s Reading and Writing Workshop F & P Guided Reading Core/Basal Readers KWL Directed-Reading Thinking Activity Reciprocal Teaching Beck/McKeown Text Talk Read Aloud Wilson Phonics Fluency Oriented Reading Instruction Question Answer Relationships Readers’ Theater Reading Recovery Differentiated Instruction Theme-based Instruction

7 Activity 2: How am I Using My Student’s Time? Independently, list 10 of your personal favorite instructional practices. Categorize them. If you put them in the validated category, cite a reference. Share with a partner.

8 Components of Tier 1 Scientifically-based core program offered to all children 90-120 minutes/day Assessment system including: universal screening, formative assessments for informing instruction, progress monitoring Professional development

9 Define the role that Tier 1 plays within an RTI model Provides effective effective instruction to all children based on policy and research –Evidence-based Instruction –Effective classroom management –Motivation –Integration of curriculum, instruction and assessment (Mellard & Johnson, 2008)

10 Define the role that Tier 1 plays within an RTI model By insuring that all students receive effective instruction, the likelihood of student success is maximized and the risk that children will be incorrectly identified for more isolated, expensive services is minimized. Tier 1 is the first gate within a broader interdependent infrastructure designed to meet the needs of ALL students.

11 11 Goal #1: Define the parameters of a research- based Tier 1 program Needs Assessment What are you currently using for Tier 1 instruction? Does it address each pillar? What level of research validation exists for your current program or programs? Was the validation conducted with children like the children in your school? How do you insure fidelity? How many children in each classroom are considered “at high risk?” (>20% = Tier 1 needs attention)

12 Needs Assessment, continued How Updated Are You? Federal Policy Professional Standards –IRA, NCTE, NRC Research Related to Academic Areas –NRP, Professional Journals Research on Effective Schools –Professional books, journals, websites

13 Categorize School-Adopted Programs and Practices

14 Building A Roadmap

15 Building a Roadmap We also recommend: Johnson, E., Mellard, D.F., Fuchs, D., & McKnight, M.A. (2006). Responsiveness to intervention (RTI): How to do it. Lawrence, KS: National Research Center on Learning Disabilities. Available for free: Mellard, D. F. & Johnson, D. F. (2008) RTI: A practitioners guide to implementing Response to Intervention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

16 Tier 1: Literacy

17 Systemic Components of Effective Tier 1 Programs Scientifically-based comprehensive literacy program (phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension) 90-120 minutes of core instruction Assessment system Professional development Scheduled collaboration

18 Tier 1…All Tiers Differentiated instruction Scientifically-based instruction Data-based decision making Parental involvement Transparency of instructional practices and outcomes of that practice Differentiated professional development

19 Tier 1 Instructional Contexts Whole Group Small teacher-led groups Small student-led groups Student dyads Independent

20 Instructional Components Text TypePrimary Purpose Teacher Read- Aloud (WC) Complex Text Comprehension Vocabulary Shared Reading (WC) Grade level text (supported) Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Guided Reading (STLG) Instructional level text Orchestration of the reading process, decoding, fluency Independent (I/SSLG) Easy or pre- taught Fluency Engagement

21 Tier 1: Cultural Relevance High expectations for all students Tier 1 is site of third space- that place where home experience and language is honored and integrated to form a bridge to the academic experience More than food, fiestas, and multicultural literature ADD LINGUISTICS

22 Tier 1: Cultural Relevance Evidence indicates that RTI models have been effective in increasing proficiency in PA, phonics and to a lesser extent oral reading fluency for ELLs and students of color (Haager, 2007; Linan-Thompson et al., 2003). Developing strong meaning vocabulary and comprehension require special attention and time in Tier 1.

23 CREDE Standards of Effective Pedagogy Teachers and students producing together Developing language and literacy across the curriculum Making lessons meaningful Teaching complex thinking Teaching through conversation

24 Tier 1: Cultural Relevance Since the general education teacher knows the class schedule and each child’s individual schedule, she is the gatekeeper. She must insure that Tier 1 time is being devoted to high level thinking and that instruction in high level thinking is not supplanted by additional practice in low level activities or alphabetic skills.

25 Tier 1 Assessments TypeSchedulePurpose State- mandated 1X yearSchool evaluation Yearly goals CBM-Screening 3-4X yrIdentify Risk Levels FormativeVariesInforms Instruction Progress Monitoring Weekly for 6-8 weeks Confirm or dis-confirm at-risk determination

26 Activity 3: Assessment Survey Work with your grade level (horizontal) team to complete a column of the assessment grid. What assessments do you currently use to assess each category of literacy knowledge? How is each assessment being used: Screening, PM, Formative, Summative? Create teams that have a person from each grade level…vertical teams.Share information at each grade level. Discuss voids and redunduncies that you discovered.

27 Instructional Basics Findings of the National Reading Panel should be considered the “necessary, but not sufficient” elements of a comprehensive literacy program. Familiarity with the true contents of this document are essential. Guard against myths and misuse. Pillars: Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension

28 Instructional Basics Essential elements not addressed in the NRP report. You will need to investigate the recent research related to: –Writing –Hypertext and new literacies –Motivation –Disciplinary (content) literacy

29 But we already do all that! A check-up is always essential to prevent “drift.” New research is published monthly. We have an obligation to our children to be applying the most up-to-date, effective practices and materials. It takes reading, thought, and conversation to integrate it with existing effective practice to avoid pendulum swings.


31 Make Use of Research Clearinghouses But be critical consumers…know who is presenting the information to you and be well aware of their political, philosophical and audience biases. For example…is this distributed by a govt. agency, a for-profit product/company, a special interest group?

32 We use a basal anthology. OR We use “balanced literacy.” OR The list goes on…… Programs don’t teach kids. Knowledgeable, reflective, intentional teachers do.


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