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Group Dynamics and Teamwork Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Chapter 9.

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Presentation on theme: "Group Dynamics and Teamwork Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:

1 Group Dynamics and Teamwork Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Chapter 9

2 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–29–2 Learning Objectives 1.Describe the various types of groups in organizations. 2.Summarize the stage of group development and key roles members occupy within a work group. 3.Identify the characteristics of an effective work group. 4.Be able to implement two different methods of group problem solving and decision making. 5.Pinpoint several potential problems with group effort and know how to prevent them. 6.Explain how to foster teamwork.

3 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–39–3 Types of Groups and Teams Groups Groups  Interact with one another.  Are working toward some common purpose.  Perceive themselves to be a group.  Have a strong, focused leader.  Have individual accountability.  Strive to run efficient meetings. Teams Teams  Are a special type of group.  Have complementary skills.  Are committed to a common purpose.  Have a set of performance goals.  Have a defined approach to a task.  Have a team leader who shares leadership roles.  Have individual and mutual accountability.  Encourage open-ended discussion and participation.

4 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–49–4 Types of Groups and Teams Formal Groups Formal Groups  Are deliberately formed by the organization to accomplish specific tasks and achieve goals. Informal Groups Informal Groups  Emerge over time through the interaction of workers to satisfy a social or recreational purpose. Are not sanctioned but may be tolerated by the organization.

5 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–59–5 Types of Work Teams Cross-Functional Team  Is a group of workers with different specialties drawn from the same level in the organization to blend their talents to accomplish a task such as product development.  Have individual members who think in terms of what is good for the organization and not their specialty. Top-Management Team Top-Management Team  Is the group of managers at the top of organizations that collaborates in making most major decisions.  Occasionally, can be a committee of two or more top executives who claim to share power.

6 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–69–6 Types of Work Teams Affinity Groups Affinity Groups  Are employee-involvement groups composed of professional-level (or knowledge) workers.  Meet regularly, share information, capture opportunities, and solve problems affecting their organizations.  Are self-directing and have a formal charter from their organizations.

7 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–79–7 Types of Work Teams Virtual Teams Virtual Teams  Are small groups of people who conduct almost all of their collaborative work by electronic communication rather than face-to-face. Members can be located anywhere in the world.  Advanced “cybercollaboration” techniques:  for sharing information and “cybermeetings.”  groupware for simultaneous document editing.  desktop video conferencing to facilitate the virtual team.

8 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–89–8 Stages of Group Development Stage 1:Forming Stage 1:Forming  A time of confusion, caution, communality for members.  Group members learn:  what tasks are expected to be performed.  what the benefits are of group membership.  what rules must be followed and expected behaviors. Stage 2: Storming Stage 2: Storming  A time of hostility, infighting, tension, and confrontation.  Members argue to clarify expectations.  Coalitions, cliques, and subgroups form within the group.

9 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–99–9 Stages of Group Development Stage 3:Norming Stage 3:Norming  A period of quiet; resistance is overcome and group standards (norms) are established.  Cohesiveness and commitment begin to emerge.  Sources of “Norms”:  The group itself sets behavioral and performance standards.  Organizational rules and policies are adopted.  Influential team members who inspire the group.

10 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–10 Stages of Group Development Stage 4:Performing Stage 4:Performing  In this stage, the group is ready to focus on accomplishing its key tasks.  Intrinsic motivation and creativity emerge as the group performs (“working for the cause”). Stage 5: Adjourning Stage 5: Adjourning  Groups are dissolved after their tasks are accomplished. Key Managerial Challenge Key Managerial Challenge  To help groups move past the first three stages of group development into performing.

11 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–11 The Stages of Group Development Adjourning Storming Norming Performing Forming EXHIBIT 9-1

12 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–12 Roles within Groups 1.Knowledge Contributor 2.Process Observer 3.People Supporter 4.Challenger 5.Listener 6.Mediator 7.Gatekeeper 8.Take-charge Leader

13 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–13 Characteristics of Effective Work Groups Job Design Job Design  Effective work groups follow the principles of job design (job enrichment and the job characteristics model) to develop self-management capabilities and to ensure participation in decision making. A Feeling of Empowerment A Feeling of Empowerment  Effective work groups believe they have the authority to solve a variety of problems without first obtaining approval from management.  Group experiences: potency, meaningfulness, autonomy, and impact.

14 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–14 Characteristics of Effective Work Groups Interdependence Interdependence  Effective work groups are task interdependent:  Interdependence increases motivation and enhances the sense of responsibility for the work of the group as members interact and depend on one another to accomplish the task.  Goal interdependence involves linking individual goals to the group’s goals. Right size and mix Right size and mix  Groups need to be large enough to do the job yet small enough to maintain internal communications, cohesiveness, and coordination.  Increasing group diversity improves problem solving.

15 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–15 Characteristics of Effective Work Groups Support for the Work Group Support for the Work Group  The availability of sufficient resources (e.g., training and managerial support) is essential to group success. Effective Processes within the Group Effective Processes within the Group  Simply believing that the group can do anything enhances group effectiveness.  Social support of others, workload sharing, communication, and cooperation all contribute to group cohesiveness.

16 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–16 Characteristics of Effective Work Groups Follows Processes and Procedures  Teams that can be trusted to follow work processes and procedures tend to perform better (higher quality output). Familiarity with Jobs, Coworkers, and the Environment  Group effectiveness is increased when group members have a high degree of specific knowledge of their jobs, coworkers, and the environment.

17 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–17 InterdependenceInterdependence Productivity Job Satisfaction Productivity Characteristics Enriched Job Design EmpowermentEmpowerment Right Mix and Size Support for Work Group Effective Processes Follows Processes Familiarity with Job Effectiveness Criteria Sources: Michael A. Campion, Ellen M. Papper, and Gina Medsker, “Relations between Work Team Characteristics and Effectiveness: A Replication and Extension,” Personnel Psychology, Summer 1996, p. 431; David E. Hyatt and Thomas M. Ruddy, “An Examination of the Relationship between Work Group Characteristics and Performance: Once More into the Breech,” Personnel Psychology, Autumn, 1997, p. 579; Brian D. Janz, Jason A. Colquitt, and Raymond A. Noe, “Knowledge Worker Team Effectiveness: The Role of Autonomy, Interdependence, Team Development, and Contextual Support Variables,” Personnel Psychology, Winter 1997, pp. 877–904; Bradley L. Kirkman and Benson Rosen, “Powering Up Teams,” Organizational Dynamics, Winter, 2000, pp. 48–52. EXHIBIT 9-2 Work Group Characteristics Related to Effectiveness

18 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–18 Group Problem Solving and Decision Making Group Decision-Making Styles Group Decision-Making Styles  Consultative  Group leader consults with the group before deciding.  Consensus  Manager shares problem with group members who seeka solution.  Democratic  The group is empowered to make decision themselves.

19 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–19 Group Problem Solving and Decision Making Steps in the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) 1. Members of the group are chosen and brought together. 2. If the group is too large, it is divided into subgroups. 3. The group leader presents the question. 4. Individual members independently record their work. 5. Each group member presents one idea without discussion. 6. Once members have presented their viewpoints, evaluate all of the ideas. 7. The meeting terminates with individuals voting to create a group ranking of the ideas.

20 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–20 Group Problem Solving and Decision Making: Steps in the Delphi Process Source: R. J. Tersine and W.E. Riggs, “The Delphi Technique: A Long-Range Planning Tool,“ Business Horizon (April, 1976): p. 53. Copyright © 1976 by the School of Business at Indiana University. EXHIBIT 9-3 StartStart Prepare questionnaire Determine expertise required Sample experts (sample size) Distribute questionnaire Analyze question responses Has consensus been reached? Provide requested information and tabulate responses Prepare the next questionnaire Problem definition Compile final responses and disseminate the results (final report) Yes

21 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–21 Potential Problem Within Groups Group Polarization Group Polarization  Shifts in member attitudes to more or less risky positions, which, in turn, reduces intragroup cohesion. Social Loafing Social Loafing  Occurs when an undermotivated person shirks individual responsibility and tries to squeeze by without contributing a fair share of the work.

22 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–22 Potential Problem Within Groups Groupthink Groupthink  Occurs when strong group cohesiveness creates an extreme form of consensus and interferes with effective decision making.  Contributors to groupthink:  strong member identification with the group  directive leadership  high stress  insulation of the group  no built-in mechanism for evaluating decisions

23 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–23 Building Teamwork 1.Instill in teams an urgent constructive purpose. 2.Empower the group to determine how to meet its objectives. 3.Promote the idea that we are all in this together. 4.Make frequent use of words and phrases that support teamwork. 5.Use language the fosters cohesion and commitment.

24 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 9–24 Building Teamwork (cont’d) 5.Use a consensus decision-making style to foster participation. 6.Feed members valid facts and information that motivate them to work together. 7.Avoid micromanagement in supervising the team too closely. 8.Create physical structures suited for teams. 9.Reward the team as well as individuals. 10.Send members to outdoor (or off-site) training.


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