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Grid Networks. What is Grids? Cluster of clusters – geographically distributed and connected with high-speed MAN and WAN links. Made up of tens to thousands.

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Presentation on theme: "Grid Networks. What is Grids? Cluster of clusters – geographically distributed and connected with high-speed MAN and WAN links. Made up of tens to thousands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grid Networks

2 What is Grids? Cluster of clusters – geographically distributed and connected with high-speed MAN and WAN links. Made up of tens to thousands of small commodity servers interconnected with scalable, high-performance Ethernet networks.

3 Typical Grid Computing Model

4 Why Grids? A biochemist exploits 10,000 computers to screen 100,000 compounds in an hour 1,000 physicists worldwide pool resources for petaop analyses of petabytes of data Civil engineers collaborate to design, execute, & analyze shake table experiments Climate scientists visualize, annotate, & analyze terabyte simulation datasets An emergency response team couples real time data, weather model, population data

5 Why Grid? (contd.) A multidisciplinary analysis in aerospace couples code and data in four companies A home user invokes architectural design functions at an application service provider An application service provider purchases cycles from compute cycle providers Scientists working for a multinational soap company design a new product A community group pools members’ PCs to analyze alternative designs for a local road

6 The Grid Problem Flexible, secure, coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions, and resource From “The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations” Enable communities (virtual organizations”) to share geographically distributed resources a s they pursue common goals – assuming the absence of Central location, Central control, Omniscience, Existing trust relationships.

7 Why Now? Moore’s law improvements in computing produce highly functional end-systems The Internet and burgeoning wired and wireless provide universal connectivity Changing modes of working and problem solving emphasize teamwork, computation Network exponentials produce dramatic changes in geometry and geography

8 Network Exponentials Network vs. computer performance Computer speed doubles every 18 months Network speed doubles every 9 months 1986 to 2000 Computers: x 500 Networks: x 340, to 2010 Computers: x 60 Networks: x Moore’s Law vs. storage improvements vs. optical improvements. Graph from Scientific American (Jan. 2001) by Cleo Viett, source Vined Khoslan, Kleiner, Caufield and Perkins.

9 Broader Context “Grid Computing” has much in common with major industrial trusts Business-to-business, Peer-to-peer, Application Service Providers, Storage Service Providers, Distributed Computing, Internet Computing… Sharing issues not adequately addressed by existing technologies Complicated requirements: “run program X at site Y subject to community policy P, providing access to data at Z according to policy Q” High performance: unique demands of advanced & high- performance systems

10 The Globus Project TM Close collaboration with real Grid projects in science and industry Development and promotion of standard Grid protocols to enable interoperability and shared infrastructure Development and promotion of standard Grid software APIs and SDKs to enable portability and code sharing The Globus Toolkit TM : Open Source, reference software based for building grid infrastructure and applications Global Grid Forum: Development of standard protocols and APIs for Grid computing

11 Basic Grid Architecture

12 Layered Grid Architecture “Coordinating multiple resources”: Ubiquitous infrastructure services, App-specific distributed services “Sharing single resources”: Negotiating access, controlling use “Talking to things”: communication (Internet protocols) & security “Controlling things locally”: Access to, & control of, resources

13 The Single System Model User Interface / API Resource Discovery Process Management Authentication Authorization Accounting Message Passing Data Management Operating System StorageCompute

14 What Makes a Cluster? Uses a Distributed Resource Manager (DRM) to manager job scheduling Tightly coupled - High speed, low latency interconnect network Shared storage for home directories, high throughput scratch space, applications Fairly homogenous - Configuration management is important! Single administrative domain User accounts managed with traditional mechanisms

15 The Cluster Model RDPM3ADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster DRM RDPM3ADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster DRM RDPM3ADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster DRM RDPM3ADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster DRM RDPM3ADMMP User Interface/API Cluster DRM Cluster Node High Speed Interconnect Master Node Shared Storage Configuration Management

16 How is an Enterprise Grid Different from a Cluster? Heterogeneous - Clusters, SMP, even workstations of dissimilar configurations, but all are tied together through a grid middleware layer Lightly coupled - Connected via 100 or 1000Mbps Ethernet Introduces a resource registry and grid security service But usually only a single registry and security service for the grid Not necessarily a single administrative domain

17 The Enterprise Grid Model RDPMAADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster Interface RDPMAADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster Interface RDPMAADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster Interface RDPM3ADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Grid Interface RDPM3ADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Grid Interface RDPM3ADMMP User Interface/API Grid Interface SMP Enterprise LAN or WAN Security Infrastructure Resource Registry Grid Interface Cluster DRM RDPMAADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster Interface RDPMAADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster Interface RDPMAADMMP Operating System StorageCompute Cluster Interface Grid Interface Cluster DRM RDPM3ADMMPRDPM3ADMMP

18 How is a Global Grid Different from an Enterprise Grid? "Grid of Grids" - Collection of enterprise grids Loosely coupled between sites Mutually distrustful administrative domains Multiple grid resource registries and grid security services

19 The Global Grid Model Grid WAN RRSI Cluster Grid SMP Grid SMP Grid Cluster UI/API Grid LAN Grid RRSI SMP Grid SMP Grid SMP Grid Cluster RRSI ClusterSMP Grid Cluster Grid LAN Site A Site B Site C UI/API Grid UI/API Grid LAN

20 Grid Platforms Examples: Globus

21 Grid Platform Example : Globus Toolkit V2 Primary development occurred at Argonne National Labs Principals were Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman Open source But architecture development was a closed process Toolkit approach: different “bundles” that can be installed depending upon what functions are desired API through CoG (Commodity Grid) kits Java, Python, CORBA, Perl, Matlab, Web services, JSP (JavaServer Page)

22 Globus Toolkit V2 Majority of its use is in university and government research environments Some vendors offer value-added versions IBM Grid Toolbox Platform Globus NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI) is packaging pre-built Globus with other relevant components NWS (Network Weather Service) KX.509/KCA (Kerberos-X.509 integration) Condor-G as a “metascheduler” GSI-enabled OpenSSH * GSI :Grid security Infrastructure

23 Globus Toolkit V2 “Pillars” Information Services (MDS) Data Management (GASS) Resource Management (GRAM) Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI)

24 Globus Toolkit V2 Stack MDSGASS/GridFTPGRAM GSI HTTPLDAPFTP TLS/SSL TCP/IP

25 Globus Toolkit V2 Key Components Grid Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) Server-side: “gatekeeper” process that controls execution of job managers Client-side: “globusrun” UI to launch jobs Monitoring and Directory Service (MDS) GRIS: Grid Resource Information Service collects local info GIIS: Grid Index Information Service collects GRIS info Global Access to Secondary Storage (GASS) GridFTP, implemented through “in.ftpd” daemon and “globus-url-copy” command Files accessed through a URI, e.g. gsiftp://node1.ncbiogrid.org/data/ncbi/ecoli.nt

26 Globus Toolkit V2 Key Components: GSI Uses a TLS/SSL-based PKI infrastructure All server resources (i.e. gatekeeper, GRIS) and users have a public key that has been digitally signed by the CA (the “certificate”) and a private key “grid-cert-request” to generate key pair User/sysadmin sends the public key to CA CA signs the public key with its private key and returns to the signed certificate to the user/sysadmin The user/sysadmin stores the signed certificate in the local filesystem Certificate contains: the subject name, the subject’s public key, the CA’s name, and the CA’s signature

27 Globus Toolkit V2 Key Components: GSI Logging in to the grid (“grid-proxy-init”): User creates a temporary public-private key pair User’s private key is used to digitally sign the temporary public key -- this becomes the “proxy” certificate This creates a chain of trust from the CA to the user to the proxy certificate The proxy certificate and associated private key are transmitted with a job The proxy certificate can be used to issue commands on remote servers on the user’s behalf (“delegation”) On remote servers, there is a “grid-mapfile” that maps user cert subject names to local userids

28 Globus Toolkit V2 Additional Components Grid Packaging Tools (GPT) Used to build (“gpt-build”), install (“gpt-install”) and localize (“gpt-postinstall”) Globus components MPICH-G2 A Globus V2 enabled version of MPI (Message Passing Interface) Based on MPICH Utilizes GSI, MDS and GRAM

29 Globus Toolkit V2 Network Services Certificate Authority GIIS Server GRIS gatekeeper in.ftpd Grid Node GRAM Client Client Node GRIS gatekeeper in.ftpd Grid Node GRIS gatekeeper in.ftpd Grid Node GRIS gatekeeper in.ftpd Grid Node Network

30 GRAM, MDS and GASS Interactions resource process job manager gatekeeper process GRAM GRIS resource GIIS MDS GridFTP in.ftpd GASS job allocation job management resource discovery data transfer data control user / proxy Client RSL/DUROC/HTTP 1.1LDAP gsiftp

31 Globus Toolkit V2 Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths: Mindshare and collaboration in both industry & academia Open source Standards-based underpinnings (e.g. SSL, LDAP) Flexibility and CoG API's Driving OGSA with heavy resource commitment from IBM Weaknesses: Significant effort required to get applications working on a grid Not production quality at this time No “metascheduler” -- user has to explicitly tell their jobs where to run

32 References Dr. Carl Kesselman, “Grid Computing” Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California Joint work with Ian Foster, ANL and U Chicago Bryan Carpenter, Geoffrey Fox, and Marlon Pierce, “e-Science e-Business e-Government and their Technologies Introduction” Pervasive Technology Laboratories, Indiana University

33 References Fran Berman and Anthony J.G. Hey, “Grid Computing: Making The Global Infrastructure a Reality,” Wiley, ISBN: , March 2003 “High-Performance Computing with Scalable Server Cluster and Grid Networks,” FORCE10 usterGridapV1_0.pdf

34 References Ian Foster, et al., “The Anatomy of the Grid,’ my.pdf my.pdf Ian Foster, et al, “Computational Grid,” fp.globus.org/research/papers/chapter2.pdf fp.globus.org/research/papers/chapter2.pdf “Grid Networks,” ITU, gridNetworks/ gridNetworks/

35 References Steve Tuecke, “National eScience Core Programme & Grid Highlights,” J. Charles Kesler, “Grid Overview,” -overview.ppt -overview.ppt


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