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Business communication Chapter 2 Fundamental of business writing.

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1 Business communication Chapter 2 Fundamental of business writing

2 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Contents  Written communication  Adaptation and the selection of words  Construction of clear sentences  Writing for effect

3 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE  A colleague has just sent you an email relating to a meeting you're having in one hour's time. The email is supposed to contain key information that you need to present, as part of the business case for an important project.  But there's a problem: The email is so badly written that you can't find the data you need. There are misspellings and incomplete sentences, and the paragraphs are so long and confusing that it takes you three times more than it should to find the information you want.

4 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  As a result, you're under-prepared for the meeting, and it doesn't go as well as you want it to.

5 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao A.Written communication  Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word.  It is very common in business situations. so it is important to develop effective written communication skills.

6 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Writing ability is especially important in customer communication. Business proposals, status reports, customer documentation, technical support, or even e-mail replies all depend on clear written communication.  The better your writing skills are, the better the impression you'll make on the people around you – including your boss, your colleagues, and your clients.

7 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao B.Adapation and the selection of words  What is Adaptation? fitting the messages to the specific readers There are many diction levels to language, and many ways to say something.

8 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao A. Understand and analyze business communication situations B. Identify our audiences/recipients C. Analyze our audiences/recipients D. Choose channels to reach our audiences E. Use audience analysis to adapt our message F. Create reader benefits How to adapt?

9 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao A. Understand and analyze business communication situations  to whom should we send a message?  What channel should we use ?  What should we say ?  How should we say it ?

10 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Initial Audience the first audience to get our message, sometimes the one Who tells us to write the message. Primary audience The one who decide whether to accept our recommendations or will act on the basis of our message. B. Identify our audiences/recipients

11 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Secondary audience The one who may be asked to comment On our message or to implement our Ideas after they’ve been approved. Gatekeeper The one who has the power to stop your message instead of sending it on to other Audiences.

12 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Watchdog audience The one who has political, social, or Economic power, and pays close attention to the transaction between you and the primary audience and may base future actions on its evaluation of our message.

13 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 1 Jane is an assistant account executive in an advertisement agency. Her boss asks her to write a proposal for a marketing plan for a new product which the agency’s client is introducing. Pleas identify Jane’s audiences

14 THE REAL AUDIENCES Jane’s Boss executive committee of the client company marketing staff of the client company artists, writers, media buyers the relevant government authority TYPES OF AUDIENCES Initial audience Primary Audience Secondary Audience Gatekeeper Watchdog Audience

15 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 2 A consulting company was hired by a group of manufacturers to write a report on how potential changes of some regulations would affect manufacturing, safety and costs of a consumer product. Please identify the consulting company’s audiences.

16 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Initial audience Primary audience Secondary audience Watchdog Gatekeeper the group of manufacturers government industry reviewers general public competitors potential clients of the company

17 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao C. Analyze our audiences/recipients  When analyzing individuals, we can use common sense and empathy

18 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  When analyzing the organizational culture we pay attention to its myths, stories and heroes revealed verbally, and its allocation of space, money and power showed and felt nonverbally.  When analyzing members of groups we can refer to demographic characteristics ( 人口统计特征 ), psychographic characteristics ( 人格心理特性 ), values and life styles ( 价值观 - 生 活方式图 )

19 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Group work!  Age (Under 30, 30-60, Above 60)  Education level (Less educated,Highly educated)  Character(outgoing,conservative)

20 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao D. Choose channels to reach your audiences Communication channels vary in speed, accuracy of transmission, cost, number of messages carried, number of people reached, efficiency and ability to promote goodwill. Depending on the audience, our purposes, and the situation, on channel may be better than other.

21 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao E. Use audience analysis to adapt our message What will the reader’s initial reaction( 反应 ) be to the message? How much information does the reader need? What obstacles( 障碍 ) must we overcome? What positive aspects can we emphasize? What expectations does the reader have about the appropriate language, structure, and form for messages?

22 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao F. Create reader benefits Reader benefits are benefits or advantages that the reader gets by using services, buying our products, following our policies, or adopting our ideas.  Identify the feelings, fears, and needs that may motivate our reader  Identify the features of our product that could meet the needs  Show how the reader can meet his or her needs with the features of the policy or product.

23 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Some tips:  Adapt to the lowest level we need to reach without offending( 冒犯 ) those at higher levels.  Without offending the gatekeepers and the decision makers, use the primary audiences to determine level of detail, organization, level of formality, and use of technical terms and theory.  Find out and/or emphasize the common interests.

24 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Use familiar wordsfamiliar words Choose short words Use slang( 俚语 ) words with caution( 谨慎 ) Use technical words and acronyms( 只取 首字母的缩写词 ) with cautionacronyms Select words with the right strength Suggestions For Selecting Words

25 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Use concrete( 具体的 ) languageconcrete Use the active( 积极的 ) voice Select words for precise meanings Use gender-neutral words Avoid words that stereotype by race, nationality, or sexual orientation( 倾向性 )sexual orientation Avoid words that typecast those with disabilities

26 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 1  Shorten  Do  About  Find out  Begin  Much  Decide  Harmful Abbreviate Accomplish Approximately Ascertain Commence Considerable Determine Detrimental Long, Unfamiliar WordsShort, Familiar Words

27 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Copy  Height  Equal  Build  Give  Vague  Show  Useless Duplicate Elevation Equivalent Fabricate Furnish Indeterminate Indicate Ineffectual Long, Unfamiliar WordsShort, Familiar Words

28 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Hinder  Smallest  Change  Go  Replace  Last  Picture  Proof Interrupt Minimal Modification Proceed Supersede Ultimate Visualize Verification Long, Unfamiliar Words Short, Familiar Words

29 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 2  RFID  FTC  CD  IPO  RV  NATO  IRS  Radio Frequency Identification  Federal Trade Commission  Certificate of Deposit/Compact Disc  Initial Public Offering  Recreational Vehicle  North Atlantic Treaty Organization  Internal Revenue Service What do these letters mean?

30 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 3 Our research shows that 87 percent of those using this technique are successful. Your department may hire three new stock clerks. We will ship the Moss No. 41 desk sets you ordered October 12 by Arrow Freight on October 15. Each of the branch managers will received a 15 percent pay raise. This process requires a constant temperature of 10 degrees centigrade. We have found that this technique is successful. Your department may hire some new employees. We will ship your order soon. Each of the branch managers will receive a substantial pay raise. This procedure requires a constant low temperature. AbstractConcrete

31 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 4 We will reimburse any employee for travel expenses paid. A customer who pays promptly is placed on our preferred list. A physician should treat patients with respect. SexistNonsexist We will reimburse any employee who paid his travel expenses. If a customer pays promptly, he is placed on our preferred list. A physician( 医师 ) should treat his patients with respect.

32 If customers pay promptly, they are placed on our preferred list. When unauthorized employees enter the security area, they are subject to dismissal. Supervisors are not responsible for such losses if they are not negligent. When customers need service, they have the right to ask for it. If a customer pays promptly, he is placed on our preferred list. When an unauthorized( 未被授 权的 ( employee enters the security area, he is subject to dismissal( 解雇 ). A supervisor is not responsible for such losses if he is not negligent( 疏忽的 ). When a customer needs service, it is her right to ask for it. Sexist Nonsexist

33 If a customer pays promptly, he or she is placed on our preferred list. When an unauthorized employee enters the security area, he/she is subject to dismissal. A supervisor is not responsible for such losses if s/he is not negligent. When service is needed, one has the right to ask for it. If a customer pays promptly, he is placed on our preferred list. When an unauthorized employee enters the security area, he is subject to dismissal. A supervisor is not responsible for such losses if he is not negligent. When a customer needs service, it is her right to ask for it. SexistNonsexist

34 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao C. Construction of clear sentences 1.EMPHASIS ON SHORT SENTENCES Writing clearly generally involves writing short sentences, though there are exceptions. We can write short sentences in two ways:  by limiting content  by using words economically

35 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao some troublesome ( 麻烦的 ) problems About uneconomical wordings:  Cluttering Phrases  Surplus (多余的) Words  Roundabout (拐弯抹角的) Constructions  Unnecessary Repetition of Words or Ideas

36 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao × cluttering phrases √ eliminate cluttering phrases  Regardless (不管) of the fact that sales increased, profits continue to decline. Even though sales increased, profits continue to decline.  Production will decrease next month due to the fact that we must retool for the next model. Production will decrease next month because we must retool for the next model. Economizing on Words

37 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  In very few instances do the salespeople receive bonuses over the amount of $100. The salespeople seldom (很少) receive bonuses over $100.  At all times the cash box is kept locked. The cash box is always locked.

38 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao × surplus words √ cutting surplus words  You are hereby instructed to send all daily reports directly to this office as promptly (迅速 地) as possible. Please send all reports to this office promptly.  Your attention is directed to paragraph 3, which summarizes the findings of this study. Paragraph 3 summarizes the findings of this study.

39 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao × roundabout constructions √ rephrase (改撰) roundabout constructions  All the books are in readiness (准备就绪) for the annual audit. The books are ready for the annual audit.  It is our expectation that this plan will be successful. We expect the plan to succeed.

40 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao × unnecessary repetition √ remove unnecessary repetition  We have verified the charges to your account and find that the account balances on our books agree with the account balances on your books. We have verified the charges to your account and find that our records agree with yours.  This change will enable us to get started sooner than if we wait for a later date. This change will enable us to get started sooner.

41 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Normally, short and simple sentences carry More emphasis than long, involved ones. Write sentences that give their contents proper emphasis Example Sentences on pp51-52 of the textbook 2.Determining Emphasis in Sentence Design

42 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao 3. Giving the Sentences Unity( 统一 ) Violations( 违背 ) of unity in sentence construction fall into three categories:  Unrelated ideas  Excessive( 过多的 ) detail  Illogical( 不合逻辑的 )constructions

43 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  unrelated ideas put the ideas in separate sentences √ make one of the ideas subordinate( 服从 ) to the other √ add words that show how the ideas are related √

44 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 1  The Passman shredder( 撕碎机 ) was the first manufactured, and we have had a Timmons since 1996. put the ideas in separate sentences The Passman shredder was the first manufactured. We have had a Timmons since 1996.

45 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 2  The weather was unusually bad last month, and sales of Drummond products increased 12 percent. make one of the ideas subordinate to the other Even though the weather was unusually bad last month, our sales of Drummond products increased 12 percent.

46 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao CASE 3  We value your satisfaction, and we have carefully looked into the handling( 处理 ) of your order. add words that show how the ideas are related  Because we value your satisfaction, we carefully looked into the handling of your order.

47 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao D. Writing for effect Building Goodwill (1) friendly, co-operation or helpful feeling (2) (financial value attached to the) good reputation of an established business

48 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao A style of writing that looks at things from the reader’s point of view, emphasizing what the reader wants to know, respecting the reader’s intelligence, and protecting the reader’s ego. 1.You-Attitude / You-Viewpoint

49 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao How to create You-attitude? DO what? DON’T DO what?

50 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Focus not on what you do for the reader, but on what the reader receives or can do. In positive situations, stress what the reader wants to know.  Refer to the reader’s request or order specifically.  Don’t talk about your own feelings unless you’re sure the reader wants to know how you feel.

51 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Don ’ t tell reader how they feel or will react  In positive situations: use you more often than I; use we when it includes the readers  In negative situations: avoid the word you; protect the reader ’ s ego; use passive verbs and impersonal expressions to avoid assigning blame.

52 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  I have negotiated an agreement with Apex Rent-a-Car that gives you a discount on rental cars. As a Sunstrand employee, you can now get a 20% discount when you rent a car from Apex.  We are shipping your order of September 21 this afternoon. The two dozen Corning Ware starter sets you ordered will be shipped this afternoon and should reach you by September 28. CASE 1

53 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Your order… [ You-attitude (to individual) ] The desk chair you ordered… [ You-attitude (to a large store) ] Your invoice #783329 … CASE 2

54 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao We are happy to extend you a credit line of $5,000. You can now charge up to $5,000 on your American Express card. CASE 3

55 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  You’ll be happy to hear that Open Grip Walkway Channels meet OSHA requirements. Open Grip Walkway Channels meet OSHA requirements.  You’ll be happy to hear that your scholarship has been renewed. Congratulations! Your scholarship has been renewed. CASE 4

56 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao We provide health insurance to all employees. You receive health insurance as a full- time Procter& Gamble employee. CASE 5

57 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao You must get approval( 正式批准 ) from the director before you publish any articles or memoirs based on your work in the agency. Agency personnel must get approval from the director to publish any articles or memoirs based on their work at the agency. CASE 6

58 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao You-Attitude beyond the Sentence Level ① Tips to Create Goodwill with Content:  Be complete. When you have lots of information to give, consider putting some details in an appendix, which may be read later.  Anticipate and answer questions the reader is likely to have.  When you include information the reader didn’t ask for, show why it is important.  Show readers how the subject of your message affects them.

59 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao ② Tips to Organize Information to Build goodwill  Put information readers are most interested in first  Arrange information to meet your reader’s needs, not yours.  Use headings and lists so that the reader can find key points quickly.

60 Dear Ms. McFarland We are ready to issue a check to Rollins Equipment in the amount of $14,207.02. To receive said check, you will deliver to me a release of the mechanic’s liens in the amount of $14,207.02. Before we can release the check, we must be satisfied that the release is in the proper form. We must insist that we be provided with a stamped original of the lien indicating the document number in the appropriate district court where it is filed. Also, either the release must be executed by an officer of Rollins Equipment, or we must be provided with a letter from an officer of Rollins Equipment authorizing another individual to execute the release. Please contact the undersigned so that an appointment can be scheduled for this transaction. … CASE: A letter lacking You-attitude

61 Dear Ms. McFarland Let’s clear up the lien in the Allen contract. Rollins will receive a check for $14,207.02 when you give usa release for the mechanic’s lien of 14,207.02. To assure us that the release is in the proper form, 1. Give us a stamped original of the lien indicating the district court number, and 2. Either a. Have an officer of Rollins Equipment sign the release or b. Give us a letter from a Rollins officer authorizing someone else to sign the release. Call me to tell me which way is best for you.

62 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao How to Create Positive Emphasis? How to Apologize? 2.Positive Emphasis

63 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Avoid negative words and words with negative connotations.  State information positively. Focus on what the reader can do rather than on what you won’t or can’t let the reader do. A.How to Create Positive Emphasis

64 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  Justify negative information by giving a reason or linking it to a reader benefit.  If the negative is truly unimportant, omit it.

65 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative We have failed to finish taking inventory (存货). better We haven’t finished taking inventory. still better We will be finished taking inventory Friday. CASE 1

66 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative If you can’t understand this explanation, feel free to call me. better If you have further questions, just call me. still better Please call me for further information

67 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative Never fail to back up your disks. better Always back up your disks. negative Your balance of $835 is delinquent (拖 欠). better Your balance of $835 is past due.

68 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative We will not allow you to charge more than $1,500 on your VISA account. better You can charge $1,500 on your new VISA card. or Your new VISA card gives you $1,500 in credit that you can use at thousands of stores nationwide. CASE 2

69 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative You will not qualify for the student membership rate of $25 a year unless you are a full-time student. better You get all the benefits of membership for only $25 a year if you’re a full- time student.

70 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative We cannot sell computer disks in lots of less than 10. better To keep down packaging costs and to help customers save on shipping and handling costs, we sell computer disks only in lots of 10 or more. CASE 3

71 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Remember these tips: The beginning and end are always positions of emphasis. Put negatives in the middle of a paragraph rather than in the first or last sentence. Giving a topic lots of space emphasizes it. Therefore, you can de- emphasize negative information by giving it as little space as possible.

72 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao  No explicit (直率的) apology is necessary if the error is small and if you are correcting the mistake.  Do not apologize when you are not at fault.  When you apologize, do it early, briefly and sincerely. B.How to Apologize

73 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative I’m sorry the clerk did not credit your account properly. better Your statement has been corrected to include your payment of $263.75. CASE 1

74 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative I’m sorry that I could not answer your question sooner. I had to wait until the sales figures for the second quarter where in. better We needed the sales figures for the second quarter to answer your question. Now that they’re in, I can tell you that… CASE 2

75 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao negative I’m sorry I didn’t answer your letter sooner, I hope that my delay hasn’t inconvenienced you. better I’m sorry I didn’t answer your letter sooner. CASE 3

76 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao SUMMARY  Written communication  Adaptation and the selection of words (how to adapt? Tips of selecting words)  Construction of clear sentences (Short sentence)  Writing for effect (You-attitude)

77 Business communication. Swust. Shirley Miao Reference  商务与管理沟通( Business and administrative communication),Kitty O. Locker. 机械工业出版社  实用商务英语写作教程 徐仁凤 东南大学出版社

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