2-9 Discourse Community A group of people who share assumptions about What channels, formats, and styles to use. What topics to discuss. How to discuss topics. What constitutes evidence.
2-10 Organizational (Corporate) Culture Norms of behavior in an organization are revealed Verbally through the organization’s myths, stories, and heroes. Nonverbally through the allocation of space, money, and power.
2-11 Adapting Messages to an Audience Strategy Organization Word Choice Document Design Photographs and Visuals
2-12 Gatekeepers and Primary Audience To reach, focus on Content and choice of details. Organization. Level of formality. Use of technical terms and theory.
2-13 Written Messages Make it easier to Present many specific details. Present extensive or complex financial data. Minimize undesirable emotions.
2-14 Oral Messages Make it easier to Answer questions, resolve conflicts, and build consensus. Use emotion to persuade. Get immediate action or response. Focus the reader’s attention. Modify a proposal unacceptable in its original form.
2-15 Communication Channels Channels vary according to Speed. Accuracy of transmission. Cost. Number of messages carried. Number of people reached. Efficiency. Ability to promote goodwill.
2-16 For Written and Oral Messages Adapt the message to the audience. Show the audience how it will benefit from the idea, policy, service, or product. Overcome any objections the audience may have.
2-17 For Written and Oral Messages continued Use you-attitude and positive emphasis. Use visuals to clarify or emphasize material. Specify what the audience should do.