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History of “Speech Communication”: Models and Messages

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1 History of “Speech Communication”: Models and Messages
Lee & Baldwin

2 1. Rhetoric Earliest study: Ancient cultures
Greece: Aristotle, Plato Rome: Cicero, Quintilian China, India Beginning of a discipline ( ) 1914: National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking Departments of English Focus on public speaking

3 1. Rhetoric, cont. From practice to theory (1940-present)
Aristotle (again): Logic, credibility, emotion Burke (dramatism): Speech to remove guilt Fisher (narrative paradigm): Stories well told (believable, coherent)

4 2. Early Media Research The beginnings (1900-1920s) Some early writers
Charles Cooley (sociology) Robert Park (sociology, journalist, human rights activist) John Dewey (educational philosopher)

5 2. Early Media Research Strong effects models: Post WW 1 (1920s-1950s)
Media as “hypodermic needle” or “magic bullet” A “mass audience,”—people with the same characteristics/effects Started with analysis of radio effects, Hitler’s propaganda, and gaining support for U.S. war effort (WWII) Radio available but only 3 tv channels so viewing options limited

6 2. Early Media Research Limited effects models (1950s to 1960s)
Post WW2—a move from focus on mass audience to demographic groups People were seen as choice-makers—not “sponges” soaking up media’s influence Origin of Uses and Gratifications Theory

7 2. Early Media Research Summary thoughts
Strongest influence from sociology, psychology, social psychology Strong basis in scientific method, “media effects” paradigm A change over the years in how strong media’s influence is Began in early 1900s, but focus continues today

8 3. Scientific View of Face-to-Face Communication
Persuasion A move from “rhetoric” (analysis of speeches) to “variables” Both in change of attitudes/beliefs (traditional persuasion) and change in behavior (compliance gaining—more recently) Some early writers (1930s-1950s) Kurt Lewin: Small group interaction, group leadership, gatekeeping, networks Carl Hovland: Persuasion, source credibility, 2-sided messages

9 3. Scientific View of Face-to-Face Communication
Relationship research Self-disclosure (Jourard, 1960s) Relational growth: (1970s) Altman & Taylor: Social penetration theory Thibaut & Kelley: Social exchange theory Berger & Calabrese: Uncertainty reduction theory

10 3.5 Sociological View of Face-to-Face Communication (Metts add)
Goffman Face and facework Brown & Levinson (socio-linguists) Politeness theory Scheflen Quasi-courtship behaviors Body language and social order: Communication as behavioral control

11 4. Sociology of Culture Chicago School (of Sociology)
View: communication creates culture Social reality as process, not effect; “social construction of reality” (Berger & Luckmann, 1969) Symbolic Interactionism & Media We co-create reality through messages Media messages are part of the process of reality construction

12 5. Marxist (critical) Approaches
The Original Marx The haves (bourgeoisie) & have-nots (proletariat): owners & workers Economic system (base) drives all else—religion, education, family, culture (superstructure)

13 5. Marxist (critical) Approaches, cont.
Modified Marxism (1970’s to present) It’s not just class, but race, sex, etc. Oppression not always deliberate Cultural studies, feminism, semiotics Focus on group-held power, oppression (racism, classism, sexism), empowerment, resistence Media studies take a humanistic and critical turn!

14 Some Models of Communication: Ogden & Richards Triangle of Meaning
“D-o-g” Symbol (Word: D-o-g) Referent (Reality) Reference (Thought)

15 Lasswell’s Model of Mediated Communication
Who says What in Which channel to Whom with What Effect? (in what Situation and Context?)

16 Example: Presidential Media Event
Lasswell’s Model Example: Presidential Media Event Who: George Bush, Kim Dae-Jung What: Media Event Which channel: Whitehouse Webpage to Whom: American public with What Effect: Positive PR for Bush’s international program in what Situation: Goodwill trip and Context: War with Iraq; Tense relations with North Korea

17 Extensions of Lasswell
Technological Determinism (McLuhan): “The medium is the message” (medium (influences) everything else) Media Ecology Theory: TV (and other changes in media)  harmful societal effects (e.g., texting, SNS  relationships?)

18 Symmetry (Balance) Models

19 Symmetry (Balance) Models

20 Shannon & Weaver’s “Information Theory” Model
Received Signal Information Source Noise Transmitter Receiver Destination Channel

21 Shannon & Weaver’s “Information Theory” Model
Example: Broadcast following crisis Received Signal: A storm! A television station Noise Source: Storm damages TV equipment; static from storm in reception B TV broadcasting equipment D TV sets; E viewing public C Circuitry, waves

22 Schramm’s Model Field of experience Encoder Message Interpreter
Decoder Message Field of experience

23 Example: Broadcast Reporting (medical)
Schramm’s Model Example: Broadcast Reporting (medical) Field of experience: Limited medical experience Field of experience: Expertise in medical field Encoder Message Encoder Interpreter Interpreter Message Decoder Decoder

24 Hall’s Circuit of Culture
Representation Identity Regulation Consumption Production

25 Hall’s Circuit of Culture
Example: Abercrombie & Fitch advertisement

26 Representation: The image Identity: People’s association in mind--stylish, sexy Regulation: None Consumption: Purchasing Production: For certain outlets

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