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Lee & Baldwin History of “Speech Communication”: Models and Messages.

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Presentation on theme: "Lee & Baldwin History of “Speech Communication”: Models and Messages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lee & Baldwin History of “Speech Communication”: Models and Messages

2 1. Rhetoric Earliest study: Ancient cultures – –Greece: Aristotle, Plato – –Rome: Cicero, Quintilian – –China, India Beginning of a discipline ( ) – –1914: National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking – –Departments of English – –Focus on public speaking

3 1. Rhetoric, cont. From practice to theory (1940-present) –Aristotle (again): Logic, credibility, emotion –Burke (dramatism): Speech to remove guilt –Fisher (narrative paradigm): Stories well told (believable, coherent)

4 2. Early Media Research The beginnings ( s) – –Some early writers   Charles Cooley (sociology)   Robert Park (sociology, journalist, human rights activist)   John Dewey (educational philosopher)

5 2. Early Media Research Strong effects models: Post WW 1 (1920s-1950s) – –Media as “hypodermic needle” or “magic bullet” – –A “mass audience,”—people with the same characteristics/effects – –Started with analysis of radio effects, Hitler’s propaganda, and gaining support for U.S. war effort (WWII) – limited –Radio available but only 3 tv channels so viewing options limited

6 2. Early Media Research Limited effects models (1950s to 1960s) – –Post WW2—a move from focus on mass audience to demographic groups – –People were seen as choice-makers—not “sponges” soaking up media’s influence – –Origin of Uses and Gratifications Theory

7 2. Early Media Research Summary thoughts – –Strongest influence from sociology, psychology, social psychology – –Strong basis in scientific method, “media effects” paradigm – –A change over the years in how strong media’s influence is – –Began in early 1900s, but focus continues today

8 3. Scientific View of Face-to-Face Communication Persuasion – –A move from “rhetoric” (analysis of speeches) to “variables”   Both in change of attitudes/beliefs (traditional persuasion) and change in behavior (compliance gaining—more recently) – –Some early writers (1930s-1950s)   Kurt Lewin: Small group interaction, group leadership, gatekeeping, networks   Carl Hovland: Persuasion, source credibility, 2-sided messages

9 3. Scientific View of Face-to-Face Communication Relationship research –Self-disclosure (Jourard, 1960s) –Relational growth: (1970s)  Altman & Taylor: Social penetration theory  Thibaut & Kelley: Social exchange theory  Berger & Calabrese: Uncertainty reduction theory

10 3.5 Sociological View of Face-to- Face Communication (Metts add) Goffman – –Face and facework Brown & Levinson (socio-linguists) – –Politeness theory Scheflen – –Quasi-courtship behaviors – –Body language and social order: Communication as behavioral control

11 4. Sociology of Culture Chicago School (of Sociology) – –View: communication creates culture – –Social reality as process, not effect; “social construction of reality” (Berger & Luckmann, 1969) Symbolic Interactionism & Media – –We co-create reality through messages – –Media messages are part of the process of reality construction

12 5. Marxist (critical) Approaches The Original Marx – –The haves (bourgeoisie) & have-nots (proletariat): owners & workers – –Economic system (base) drives all else—religion, education, family, culture (superstructure)

13 5. Marxist (critical) Approaches, cont. Modified Marxism (1970’s to present) – –It’s not just class, but race, sex, etc. – –Oppression not always deliberate – –Cultural studies, feminism, semiotics – –Focus on group-held power, oppression (racism, classism, sexism), empowerment, resistence – –Media studies take a humanistic and critical turn!

14 Some Models of Communication: Ogden & Richards Triangle of Meaning “D-o-g” Symbol ( Word: D-o-g) Referent (Reality) Reference (Thought)

15 Lasswell’s Model of Mediated Communication Who says What in Which channel to Whom with What Effect? (in what Situation and Context?)

16 Lasswell’s Model Who: George Bush, Kim Dae-Jung What: Media Event Which channel: Whitehouse Webpage to Whom: American public with What Effect: Positive PR for Bush’s international program in what Situation: Goodwill trip and Context: War with Iraq; Tenserelations with North Korea Example: Presidential Media Event

17 Extensions of Lasswell Technological Determinism (McLuhan): “The medium is the message” (medium  (influences) everything else) Technological Determinism (McLuhan): “The medium is the message” (medium  (influences) everything else) Media Ecology Theory: TV (and other changes in media)  harmful societal effects (e.g., texting, SNS  relationships?) Media Ecology Theory: TV (and other changes in media)  harmful societal effects (e.g., texting, SNS  relationships?)

18 Symmetry (Balance) Models XBA

19 BA

20 Shannon & Weaver’s “Information Theory” Model Received Signal Information Source Noise Source TransmitterReceiverDestination Signal Channel

21 Shannon & Weaver’s “Information Theory” Model Received Signal: A storm! A television station Noise Source: Storm damages TV equipment; static from storm in reception B TV broadcasting equipment D TV sets; E viewing public Signal: A storm! C Circuitry, waves Example: Broadcast following crisis

22 Schramm’s Model Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Field of experience

23 Schramm’s Model Encoder Interpreter Decoder Message Encoder Interpreter Decoder Messag e Field of experience: Limited medical experience Field of experience: Expertise in medical field Example: Broadcast Reporting (medical)

24 Hall’s Circuit of Culture Representation Identity Regulation Consumption Production

25 Hall’s Circuit of Culture Example: Abercrombie & Fitch advertisement

26 Representation: The image Identity: People’s association in mind--stylish, sexy Regulation: None Consumption: Purchasing Production: For certain outlets


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