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Four Functions of Communication

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Presentation on theme: "Four Functions of Communication"— Presentation transcript:

1 Four Functions of Communication
Knowledge management Decision making Coordinating work activities Fulfils relatedness needs

2 Communication Process Model
Sender Transmit Message Receiver Receive encoded message Form message Encode message Decode message Noise Form feedback Decode feedback Receive feedback Encode feedback Transmit Feedback

3 Communication Barriers
Perceptions Filtering Language Jargon Ambiguity Information Overload

4 The HURIER Model: Components of Effective Listening
9-14 The HURIER Model: Components of Effective Listening Understanding (comprehending the messages being sent) Hearing (paying careful attention to what is being said) Remembering (being able to recall the message being sent) Effective Listening Responding (replying to the sender, letting him or her know you are paying attention) Interpreting (not reading anything into the message the sender is communicating) Evaluating (not immediately passing judgment on the message being sent)

5 Information Overload Information Load Time
Episodes of information overload Employee’s information processing capacity Information Load Time

6 Overload: Problem Solved
Message A Person Overload (too many messages reaching a person at once) Message B Message C Solutions: Message A Gatekeeper Person Use gatekeepers to control the number of incoming messages received Message B Message C Message C Person Use queuing to present messages in order Message A Message B Message C

7 9-5 Oral vs. Written Communication: Preference for Media Depends on the Message Oral media are preferred for sending ambiguous messages. Written media are preferred for sending clear messages. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 (88.3) Oral Media (67.9) Mean Percentage of Managers Preferring Media Written Media (32.1) (11.3) Extremely ambiguous messages Extremely clear messages

8 Communicating Through E-mail
Advantages of Messages quickly formed, edited, sent, and stored Needs little coordination Random information access Fewer social status barriers Problems with Information overload Flaming Interpreting emotions Lacks empathy or social support

9 Guessing E-Mail Emoticons
:-) Happy Smirk Dumb question OOPS! Tongue in cheek Hug :-} <:-) :-X :-j {}

10 Nonverbal Communication
Actions, gestures, facial expressions, etc. Transmits most info in face-to-face meetings Influences meaning of verbal and written symbols Less rule bound than verbal communication Important part of emotional labour

11 Hierarchy of Media Richness
Overloaded Zone Face-to-face Telephone Media Richness Oversimplified Zone Newsletters Lean Routine/ Clear Nonroutine/ Ambiguous Situation

12 Communicating in Hierarchies
Workspace design Employee surveys Newsletters and e-zines Management by walking around

13 Grapevine Characteristics
Transmits information very rapidly in all directions Relatively accurate, but deletes details and exaggerates key points More active in homogeneous groups who easy communication access Most active when employees are anxious Usually follows a cluster chain pattern

14 Personal Communication Style
The Nobel (someone who says what’s on his or her mind) The Magistrate (blend between Noble and Socratic) The Socratic (someone who likes to argue his or her points fully) The Senator (sometimes Noble and sometimes Reflective) The Candidate (blend between Socratic and Reflective) The Reflective (someone who would rather say nothing than to hurt someone else’s feelings)

15 Internal vs. External Communications: Is There a Difference?
More Statements Threats were used more than opportunities when communicating internally. Opportunities were used more than threats when communicating externally. External statements Relative Proportion of Statements Internal statements Fewer Statements Threats Opportunities Focus of Statements

WHAT DID HE SAY? ORIGINAL MESSAGE: “As per your subject memo; we are researching the history of Price Promotion #18B to establish why the new price sheets were not received by the sales force in advance of the effective date of the promotion. It is unclear from your memo how widespread the problem was or if it was just isolated in certain geographies. Therefore, we will need additional facts on where you think the problem occurred. As you know, we have gotten complaints from sales people in the past that they did not receive the promotions only to find out later that they had lost them due to their own disorganization.” TRANSLATION: “We screwed up but are not going to admit it.” IMPROVED MESSAGE: “Thanks for bringing the problem with this promotion to my attention. It looks like we screwed up at this end in getting the proofs to the printer on schedule. My staff and I feel badly about this and will take steps to provide better service.” 14

17 Cross-Cultural Communication
Verbal differences Language Nonverbal differences Voice intonation Interpreting nonverbal meaning Importance of verbal versus nonverbal Silence and conversational overlaps

18 Gender Communication Differences
Men Women Report talk Rapport talk Gives advice quickly and directly Gives advice indirectly and reluctantly Avoids asking for information Frequently asks for information Less sensitive to nonverbal cues More sensitive to nonverbal cues

19 Gender Issues in Leadership
Male and female leaders have similar task- and people-oriented leadership. Participative leadership is used more often by female leaders. Women rated less favourably than equivalent male leaders due to stereotyping.

20 Getting Your Message Across
Empathize Repeat the message Use timing effectively Be descriptive

21 Active Listening Process and Strategies
SENSING •Postpone evaluation • Avoid interruptions • Maintain interest ACTIVE LISTENING RESPONDING • Show interest • Clarify the message EVALUATING • Empathize • Organize information

22 Persuasive Communication
Communicator Characteristics • Expert • Credibility • Attractive Audience Characteristics • Self-esteem • Inoculated Communication Medium Message Content • Present all sides • Few arguments • Emotional appeals • Inoculation effect

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