Presentation on theme: " Equality = Providing equal resources, interventions, and access for all stakeholders Equity = Providing more resources, interventions, and access."— Presentation transcript:
Equality = Providing equal resources, interventions, and access for all stakeholders Equity = Providing more resources, interventions, and access for those school stakeholders who need more
Access –Opening Doors Equitable enrollment in rigorous courses Attainment –Reaching Benchmarks Attendance rates Drop out rates Promotion/Retention rates Special Education rates Gifted and Talented enrollment rates Math and Reading levels -ratesof proficiency Algebra I and Geometry rates Discipline -suspension and/or expulsion rates Achievement –Making the Grade State test scores Course and classroom grades Duplicated with Permission from the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy of The College Board
Social justice refers to the idea of a just society where there is equality and equity among and between groups of people Social justice targets marginalized groups of people in society, schools, etc. (whereas equality or equal rights are applicable to everyone).
Social Justice recognizes that there are situations in which the application of the same rules to unequal groups can generate unequal results!
Traditional SC Approach 1. Dependence on counseling theories and approaches with little to no regard for cultural background 2. Emphasis on individual student factors (e.g., unmotivated, depressed) 3. Emphasis on equality 4. Reliance on labels 5. Little to no use of data 6. Focus on maintaining status quo 7. Focus on enrolling students in “comfortable” courses Social Justice Approach 1. Major focus is on highlighting the strengths of students (empowerment-based counseling) 2. Emphasis on socio-cultural and environmental factors (e.g., poverty, discrimination, neighborhoods) that influence student behavior 3. Major goal is to challenge oppression 4. Emphasis on equality and equity 5. Avoidance of labeling 6. Dependence on data 7. Focus on changing existing policies and strategies 8. Focus on enrolling students in more rigorous courses Holcomb-McCoy (2007). School counseling to close the achievement gap.
7 Do we have the will to educate all children equitably? Equity Equality Diversity Without Equity = Oppression National Office for School Counselor Advocacy
Each person has the right to receive the information and support needed to move toward self-direction and self- development and affirmation within one’s group identities with special care given to students who have historically not received adequate educational services; students of color students from low-socio-economic backgrounds students with disabilities students with non-dominant language backgrounds. National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (ASCA, 2004a, p.4)
The professional school counselor: A.Affirms the diversity of students, staff, and families B. Expands and develops awareness of his/her own attitudes and beliefs affecting cultural values and biases and strives to attain cultural competence. C. Possesses knowledge and understanding about how oppression, racism, discrimination and stereotyping affects him/her personally and professionally. D. Acquires educational, consultation, and training experiences to improve awareness, knowledge, skills, and effectiveness in working with diverse populations: ethnic/racial status, age, economic status, special needs, ESL or ELL, immigration status, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity/expression, family type religious/spiritual identity and appearance.
Equality Equity Identifying at-risk students Acknowledging a broken system Color-Blindness Self-Examination Learning about “other cultures” Dismantling systems of power and privilege Celebrating diversity Advocating and fighting for equity Focus on intent Focus on impact
Barbados School is located in an urban school district. Over 60% of the students are on free and reduced lunch. About 20% of the students are in academically challenging classes. These students are the pride of the school. The other 80% are in what are considered as standard or remedial classes. Data indicates that 60% of the students who attend this school eventually go on to two or four year colleges. The other 40% either drop out of high school or do not go onto postsecondary education (PSE). As a social justice-focused school counselor, what are some of the things you could do in this school to increase access and equity for typically marginalized students?
The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) has collaborated to create a National Model for School Counseling Programs to connect school counseling with current educational reform movements that emphasize student achievement and success.
March 2001, ASCA Governing Board passed a motion to develop a National Model June 2001, Summit I met in Tucson, AZ Nov./Dec. 2001, reviewed by school counselors and Summit participants May 2002, Summit II held, in Washington, DC June 2002, Release of ASCA Model at conference
By aligning a counseling program with the school’s mission and school improvement plan, professional school counselors: partner as leaders in systemic change ensure equity and access promote academic, career and personal/ social development for every student
“We need to be the change we want to see happen. We are the leaders we have been waiting for.” – Gandhi
People have wondered… What do school counselors DO?
Lack of legitimization Lack of consistent identity Limited or no involvement in reform movements Variation in roles from state to state and site to site Non-school counselor responsibilities
Lack of basic philosophy Poor integration Insufficient student access Inadequate guidance for some students Lack of counselor accountability Failure to utilize other resources Source: From Gatekeeper to Advocate. Transforming the Role of the School Counselor, Hart, P.J. & M. Jacobi (1992)
Vocational counselors vs. Mental Health counselors Directive vs. Non-directive Individualized services vs. Comprehensive program Pre-service training varies as do administrative expectations Source: From Gatekeeper to Advocate. Transforming the Role of the School Counselor, Hart, P.J. & M. Jacobi (1992)
School administrators, parents with special interests, teachers or others may feel their agenda ought to be the school counseling program’s priority. The results often lead to confusion and criticisms when they are disappointed. (Carolyn Maddy Bernstein, 1995) When schools fail to clearly define the counselor’s role...
Education reform movement Accountability Standards-based movement High-stakes testing Achievement gap – equity and access Block grants Emphasis on improving school safety Vouchers Performance, not entitlement
ASCA’s National Standards for School Counseling Programs Transforming School Counseling Initiative (Education Trust – Dewitt Wallace) Increased number of state models Results-based school counseling Legislation for school counseling programs ASCA’s National Model
“What do counselors do?” The new question is… “How are students different because of the school counseling program?
From a program that: Focuses generally on the number of activities Measures the amount of effort Attends to the process of doing work Works to maintain the existing system To a program that: Focuses on outcomes and improved results Measures impact related to goals Attends to goals, objectives, and outcomes Changes and adapts to be more responsive Source: McGowen, P. & Miller, J., “Changing the Entitlement Culture,” The American School Board Journal, August 1999, p.43
From counselors who: Focus on good intentions Talk about how hard they work Generally feel little need to change their behavior or approach To counselors who: Focus on accomplishments Talk about effectiveness Know their future rests on accomplishments Communicate goals and objective Source: McGowen, P. & Miller, J., “Changing the Entitlement Culture,” The American School Board Journal, August 1999, p.43
What is the purpose of the school counseling program? What are the desired outcomes or results? What is being done to achieve results? What evidence is there that the objectives have been met? Is the program making a difference?
Barbados School is located in an urban school district. Over 60% of the students are on free and reduced lunch. About 20% of the students are in academically challenging classes. These students are the pride of the school. The other 80% are in what are considered as standard or remedial classes. Data indicates that 60% of the students who attend this school eventually go on to two or four year colleges. The other 40% either drop out of high school or do not go onto postsecondary education (PSE). Which headings would the previous activities/programs fit under (Advocacy, Leadership, Collaboration, systemic Change)? What other things would you add now?
Academic Development 1.Guidance Curriculum (HS) Developing Academic 4/6 year Plans Promotion/Retention Criteria Organization, Study and Testing Taking Skills Registration, College and High School Graduation Requirements Post High School Options Transition into the Real World
Academic Results Goal Setting (K-5) After classroom guidance lessons pre-post tests indicated… 10% to 98%student knowledge of goal setting increased from 10% to 98% 90% 90% achieved their identified goal
Personal/Social Results Conflict Resolution (K-5) Number of students who could peacefully resolve a conflict increased 55% to 88% from 55% to 88% 13% 3%Following implementation of a Conflict Manager program the number of suspended students was reduced from 13% in 97/98 to 3% in 01/02.
Academic Results Interventions (6-8) After Academic Counseling Groups: 37% of 6 th graders (64) 37% of 6 th graders (64) 24% of 7 th graders (47) 24% of 7 th graders (47) 72% of 8 th graders (46) 72% of 8 th graders (46) demonstrated GPA improvement
Academic Results Interventions (6-8) Students on retention list: 6th - 816th - 81 7th - 737th - 73 8th - 1038th - 103 Students who came off retention list: 6th - 276th - 27 7th - 227th - 22 8th - 238th - 23 72 students avoided retention Pre: Post:
increased from 0 to 346At one site the number of students resolving conflicts with the help of peer mediators increased from 0 to 346 increased from 47 to 149At another site, the number who took advantage of peer mediation increased from 47 to 149 Personal/Social Results Conflict Resolution (6-8)
Career Development Canyon Springs High School 30 to over 200In the last three years the number of students visiting the career center has increased from 30 to over 200 students per day. 150 to 500Parent attendance at evening guidance events has increased from 150 to 500 parents $750,000 to $825, 000Scholarship dollars for students increased from $750,000 to $825, 000 Finally, graduation rates have improved from 84 % to 89%