2Mass MediaProvides means of communicating with large number of people in short period of time.Print - newspapers, magazines, booksElectronic - TV, radio, movies, music, internetBeen called the “5th Branch of Government”Figure 8.1
3Heritage of Media and Politics Herr Gutenburg – 1450 GermanyGazette of the U.S (Federalists) and National Gazette (Republicans)Telegraph(1838)/Telephone(1879)Radio(1900)TV(1929)/Cable(1978)Internet(1964)
4Print versus Electronic Print is more detailed with Op-Ed sectionPrimary source for other media outletsTV - most trusted and used as source73% audienceBroadcast is more concise and graphics driven - “sound bites”Human interest versus issue specificVCRs and channel surfersInfotainment shows - 60 Minutes and 20/20Talk radio - 16% audiencePredisposed and usually conservativeLimbaugh, O'Reilly and FrankenInternet – recent use of Blogs
6News and Politics on the Net % of population uses as sourceAuthorship and accuracyMatt Drudge and tabloid/blog reportingPush technologyCheapest way to convey informationgroups and parties and mediafund raising increasingMost candidates have campaign and office web pages
7Freedom of the Press Alien & Sedition Act - 1798 Unlike the broadcast media, the print media are essentially unregulated.The Supreme Court has repeatedly rejected the notion of prior restraint (governmental attempts to stop publication of material it deems harmful).But libel and slander are not protected by the First Amendment.
8Regulation of the Broadcast Media The print media in the United States are not controlled by the government.The broadcast media are regulated by FCC (5 year licenses)— equal time rule,— right of rebuttal,— fairness doctrine (no longer enforced).
9Political Role of the Media Provides information public needs but wont research – vehicle of communicationMedia performs three rolesProvides information about candidates and political events (gatekeepers)Spotlights issues they consider importantPerforms watchdog/talent scout functionPublic duties versus private lifeAdversarial or Symbiotic Relationship?More interdependent than antagonistic
10The Rise of Adversarial Journalism Growth in commercial advertising“Yellow journalism”The relationship between the media and government has become increasingly adversarial over the last forty years.Vietnam and Watergate clearly demonstrate a change in the way the media covers government.Monica, Whitewater, War in Iraq.Believability – trust of the media
11Tools of the TradeThe individuals or groups who are subjects of a news story can manipulate the coverage by determining how or when the story is told.Leaks and ExclusivesPublic AnnouncementsPress conference, background/info briefingTrue issue research takes time and effort.
12Factors Shaping the News Exactly what is news worthyHas to be relevant, exciting, familiar, timelyTimeliness, proximity and conflict most importantValues of JournalistsLiberals who vote democraticDon’t trust politicians or governmentIdeology or not covering “losers”Journalist CreedIndependenceObjectiveImpartiality
13Journalists Editors versus reporters Journalists can shape the news by changing the angle of the story selection of interviewees/witnesses, visual images, or the words used to tell the story.Objective (fact) versus interpretive (opinion) reportingIdeological bias61% liberal 89% Voted for Clinton9% conservative 7% Voted for Bush50% Democrats 4% RepublicansSelection biasEntertainment valueSensationalism (positive versus negative articles)
14Journalists Editors versus reporters Journalists can shape the news by changing the angle of the story selection of interviewees/witnesses, visual images, or the words used to tell the story.Objective (fact) versus interpretive (opinion) reportingIdeological bias61% liberal 89% Voted for Clinton9% conservative 7% Voted for Bush50% Democrats 4% RepublicansSelection biasEntertainment valueSensationalism (positive versus negative articles)
16The Media and ProtestsGroups publicize issues through protests or demonstrationsViolent reaction of southern police to civil rights activistsAntiwar demonstrations in 1970sAbortion rights demonstrationsTerrorismMore educated groups more successful (WTO demonstrations in Seattle in 1999)
17Nationalization of the News - Centralized Programming Associated Press Wire ServiceAs a result, Americans are receiving the same news from the same perspective.The local perspective is disappearing.Exceptions in small news enclaves.Ethnic papers and radio stationsConservative religious networksInternet newsgroups and chat rooms
18Organization and Ownership Traditionally locally owned and operatedTelecommunications Act of 1996deregulated broadcast ownershipallow local competition for phone serviceMovement toward national ownershipABC is owned by Disney, NBC by General Electric, CBS by Viacom, FOX by News Corp. and CNN by AOL Time Warner
19The Sources of Media Power Agenda setting: the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issuesFraming: the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpretedEpisodic or specific human interestThematic or issue/policy specific1994/95 budget cuts exampleImportance of graphic visualsNielsen ratings
2021st Century News Media Cable versus Networks Commentary versus ReportingNews (factual) versus Entertainment (argument and opinion)The survey says the news is-inaccurate 65% of timeunprofessional 32% of timedescribed as immoral 38% of time.
22Media Power and Democracy The Free media are absolutely necessary for democracy.Media provide source of political knowledge necessary for popular participation.We depend on the media to serve as our watchdog.Decline in party power cause increase in media influence.Adversarial attitude produces cynicism and apathy in electorate.