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For use only with Perreault/Cannon/ McCarthy texts, © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 7 Business and Organizational Customers.

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Presentation on theme: "For use only with Perreault/Cannon/ McCarthy texts, © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 7 Business and Organizational Customers."— Presentation transcript:

1 For use only with Perreault/Cannon/ McCarthy texts, © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Chapter 7 Business and Organizational Customers and Their Buying Behavior

2 1.Describe who the business and organizational buyers are. 2.See why business and organizational purchase decisions often involve multiple influences. 3.Understand the problem-solving behavior of organizational buyers, and how they get market information. 4.Understand the different types of buyer-seller relationships and their benefits and limitations At the end of this presentation, you should be able to:

3 5.Know about the number and distribution of manufacturers and why they are an important customer group. 6.Know how buying by service firms, retailers, wholesalers, and governments is similar to— and different from—buying by manufacturers. At the end of this presentation, you should be able to:

4 Understand Business & Organizational Customers for Marketing Strategy (Exhibit 7-1)

5 Organizational Customers Differences between organizational customers & final consumers Purchase criteria & specifications Multiple buying influence Problem-solving process B2B e-commerce Buyer-seller relationships Key characteristics of specific types of organizational customers Manufacturers Producers of services Retailers & wholesalers Government units Understanding Business & Organizational Customers for Marketing Strategy (Exhibit 7-1) CH 7: Buying Behavior of Business & Organizational Customers

6 Federal State and Local Federal State and Local Governments Wholesalers Retailers Wholesalers Retailers Intermediaries Manufacturers Farms, mines, etc. Financial Institutions Other providers Manufacturers Farms, mines, etc. Financial Institutions Other providers Producers National Local National Local Nonprofits Business and Organizational Customers – A Big Opportunity –buy for resale or to produce other good and services. All Business & Organizational Customers

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Business and Organizational Customers

8 Serving Small Business Customers

9 Organizational Customers Are Different

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Serving International Markets

11 Specifications Describe the Need Quality Certification - ISO 9000 Quality Certification - ISO 9000 Specifications and Quality

12 Many Different People May Influence a Decision (Exhibit 7-2) Gatekeepers— Information Gatekeepers— Information Buying Center Deciders—select Suppliers Deciders—select Suppliers Influencers— specifications Influencers— specifications Users Buyers—arranging terms of sale Buyers—arranging terms of sale

13 Mary is a receptionist for a group of seven physicians. As she controls the calendars for the physicians, any sales representatives from pharmaceutical companies wanting to call on the physicians have to go through Mary. As a result, it is very important for sales reps to cultivate a good relationship with her. In the buying center, Mary would be best described as a: A. buyer. B. user. C. influencer. D. gatekeeper. E. decider. Checking Your Knowledge

14 Carl is a purchasing specialist for a large company. He has the authority to execute purchase orders or amounts up to $100,000. On a purchase order for a higher amount, Carl arranges the terms of sale, but the transaction has to be approved by the company president. In the buying center for a purchase in excess of $100,000, Carl is a _________ and the president is a _________: A. buyer; influencer. B. influencer; buyer. C. buyer; decider. D. gatekeeper; decider. E. user; influencer. Checking Your Knowledge

15 Ethical Conflicts May Arise (buyer-supplier relationships code of conduct) Vendor Analysis Considers All Influences (lower the total costs of a purchase) Behavioral Needs Are Important Too (sales representative who is uncooperative) Purchasing May Be Centralized (manage spending /achieve economies of scale) Evaluating Organizational Buying Influences

16 Characteristics Time required Multiple influences Review of suppliers Information needed Much New-Task Buying Type of Process Little None Little Straight Rebuy Much New-Task Buying Medium Some Modified Rebuy Little None Little Straight Rebuy Organizational Buyers Are Problem Solvers (Exhibit 7-4)

17 New Task Buying Requires Information Search Engines – a first step to gather information Search Engines – a first step to gather information New-Task Buying Requires Information Competitive Bids from buyers Competitive Bids from buyers Online marketplaces connect buyers & sellers Online marketplaces connect buyers & sellers Reverse Auctions foster price competition among suppliers Reverse Auctions foster price competition among suppliers

18 Jane, a sales representative for an industrial supply house, calls on a prospective business customer. The customer has an established relationship with another supplier, but says that there have been some reliability problems with deliveries. Jane seizes the opportunity to describe her company’s state-of-the-art logistics and transportation system that provides outstanding delivery reliability at low shipping costs. Jane is encouraged because her customer seems to be in a ___________ situation. A. straight rebuy B. modified rebuy C. new-task D. extensive problem-solving E. limited problem-solving Checking Your Knowledge

19 Auto parts wholesaler Fixem, Inc. decides to invest in a new data management system to increase the efficiency of its warehouse operations. Previously, all record-keeping was done via printed documents, but now all transactions will be electronic. This change will require Fixem to expend a significant amount of money for hardware, software, and training. However, in the long run, the cost savings should exceed the up-front investment. Fixem has arranged for presentations to be made by three different vendors. Fixem seems to be facing a ______________ buying situation. A. straight rebuy B. modified rebuy C. new-task D. extensive problem-solving E. limited problem-solving Checking Your Knowledge

20 Interactive Exercise: Organizational Buying

21 BUT Close Relationships May Produce Mutual Benefits Close Relationships May Produce Mutual Benefits -Reliable source of supply -Cost reductions -Price stability or concessions -Reduced uncertainty -Joint problem solving -Improved quality Relationships May Not Make Sense Relationships May Not Make Sense -Reduced flexibility -Some purchases are too small or infrequent -Higher risk from greater purchase concentration Buyer-Seller Relationships in Business Markets

22 Relationships Have Many Dimensions : cooperation—problem resolution; information—customer needs, cost data, demand forecasts, new-product design details

23 Relationships Have Many Dimensions : operational— just–in-time delivery; Legal—contracts; Relationships—outsourcing

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Relationship Dimensions—working closely with customers

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Relationship Dimensions—working closely with customers

26 Gotcha! is a chain of trendy stores catering to the urban contemporary market. As part of its close relationship with suppliers, Gotcha! has an Internet site that is accessible only by suppliers, and it provides up-to-the minute point-of- sale information from all of the Gotcha! stores. Suppliers can see how their products are doing at retail during any time of the day or night. In the relationship between Gotcha! and its suppliers, the Gotcha! supplier site is an example of: A. information sharing. B. legal bonds. C. reciprocity. D. operational linkages. E. negotiated contracts. Checking Your Knowledge

27 Buyers May Still Use Several Suppliers to reduce their risk Powerful Customer May Control the Relationship by compelling supplier to provide information, lower prices, modify service standards Buying Varies by Customer Type Dynamics of Buyer-Seller Relationships

28 Not Many Big Ones Not Many Big Ones Business Data Classifies Industries Business Data Classifies Industries Clustered in Geographic Areas Clustered in Geographic Areas Manufacturers Are Important Customers NAICS Codes

29 An NAICS Code Example (Exhibit 7-8) Construction (23) others… Retail (44) Manufacturing (31) Food (311)others…Leather (316) Apparel (315) Apparel (315) Knitting MIlls (3151) others… Apparel accessories (3159) Cut & Sew Apparel (3152) Cut & sew apparel (3152) Mens & boys’ (31522) others… Other cut & sew (31529) Women’s & girls’ (31523) Lingerie (315231) others… Dresses (315233) Blouses (315232)

30 Buying May Not Be Formal Car RepairMedical Services Housekeeping Services Library Service Small Service Buyers Legal Services Producers of Services – Smaller and More Spread Out—4.6 million service firm in the U.S.

31 Committee Buying Is Impersonal (computers track inventory, sales, prices) Committee Buying Is Impersonal (computers track inventory, sales, prices) Reorders Are Straight Rebuys (decisions made automatically via computer links to suppliers) Buyers Watch Computer Output Closely Resident Buyers May Help (independent buying agents who work in central markets) Retailers & Wholesalers Buy for Their Customers Some Are Not “Open to Buy” (availability of funds within Frim’s Depart’s)

32 Size + Diversity Competitive Bids Rigged Specs? (favors a particular brand) “Approved” Supplier List Negotiated Contracts (research & development: no competition) Learning Wants (government publications) Foreign Governments (unethical to buy help for some countries ) FCPA (prohibits U.S. firms from paying bribes) The Government Market

33 Which of the following is NOT an example of an organizational buyer? A. a government buyer purchasing a new desk for the mayor's office. B. a woman buying cookware to sell to her friends and neighbors. C. a sales rep buying a new necktie to make a good impression. D. a wholesaler buying a delivery truck. E. None of the above is a good example. Study Question 1

34 Which of the following is a business or organizational customer, as opposed to an individual final consumer? A. A wholesaler purchasing merchandise for resale. B. A business executive who purchases a new suit. C. A teacher who fills her car with gasoline. D. A homeowner who buys flowers at a garden center. E. None of the above example. Study Question 2

35 John Deere is considered which type of organizational customer? A. Producer. B. Intermediary. C. Government. D. Nonprofit. Study Question 3

36 In the purchase of a new computer monitor, which of the following is an example of a user? A. A purchasing manager who arranges the terms of the sale. B. An IT manager who supplies information for evaluating alternatives. C. A secretary whose computer monitor is being replaced. D. A receptionist who controls the flow of information. E. A supply manager who helps write specifications. Study Question 4

37 A straight rebuy is MOST likely to occur for: A. a new computer network. B. a pension plan which meets the new government regulations. C. paper supplies for the copy equipment. D. electronic components for a new product. E. executive chairs for a new office building. Study Question 5


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