Journalism & Citizen Journalism Breann Boze Ray Wang Mandy Falkner
Definitions Traditional Journalism Written or oral assembly “characterized by a direct presentation of facts or description of events without an attempt at interpretation.” Citizen Journalism “…when the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another.” State of Play
Evolution of Citizen Journalism Cavemen painting events on rock walls Bible brought to the masses by Gutenberg’s printing press (1400s) The people could analyze and interpret without the “gatekeepers at the pulpit” Led to differing public opinions/writings—Protestantism The Federalist Papers (1787-1788) Hamilton, Madison, Jay 85 essays published in newspapers
Evolution of Citizen Journalism Newspapers and news networks allow readers to write/phone/send in film footage and other information for public viewing. Blogs, video (YouTube), cell phones, radio, etc. Newspapers and broadcast news networks shift to the Internet.
Change in Traditional Journalism News Networks (broadcast) Increasingly visual/audio society Increasingly fast-paced Stories and footage available on-demand online Fleeting era of trusted anchor Newspapers (print) Shifting to the Internet to stay alive Brings in youth audience Internet is less expensive than printing methods American Newspapers Visual
Convergence of New and Old Media Jenkins’s convergence culture New York Times blogs Infuses opinions, interpretation, and insight into articles No longer static news environments uReport Fox News & MySpace iReport CNN sponsored citizen journalism (“On CNN”)
Gatekeepers Gatekeeper concept So what is a gatekeeper in journalism? Someone who determines the news Highlights particular stories, promotes trends, restricts the flow of information
Gatekeepers In the old days, traditional media were the gatekeepers to information Newspapers were limited in how much they could print Broadcast was limited in how much time they had to report news
Gatekeepers However, with the Internet, there have been a number of gaps in the gate that once filter news The Drudge report Newsweek chose not to publish the story on Clinton- Lewinsky scandal It was Internet reporter Matt Drudge who posted the story online The freedom of the Internet allows anyone and everyone to contribute to stories now THE GATES ARE NO LONGER CLOSED Gates now open to any and all info. if you have Internet access
Gatekeepers Benefits Little towns which got no coverage on their local events could now do their own reporting thanks to access to new technology.
Gatekeepers With no filter, except maybe your own interests, information overload becomes an issue. Columbia Journalism Review did a report on the study of online journalism today Concluded that the Internet did not necessarily translate into a better news environment
Gatekeepers Problematic issues with no gatekeeper and everyone being able to participate Slashdotcom Online journalism site that relies on people to report news People submit news on the web, the editorial staff selects the best news, posts them, and allows them to comment online Works great until Trolls arrived on the site
Gatekeepers iReport and Steve Jobs Report posted that Steve Jobs had heart attack False, but reported anyway Described as a failure of open systems iReport tagline: “Unedited. Unfiltered. News.” Is this really news? Are editors even important?
Media Literacy Act/process of accessing, analyzing, evaluating media How bias and censorship effect message Standards Just the Facts Avoid Hearsay No irrelevant opinions Plagiarism Spelling and Grammar Photographic Integrity Self Integrity Source Integrity
Professional Necessity Degree ≈ certification Promise Codes More like guidelines Know ways of Industry and have experience Know legal repercussions for unauthorized, untrue, and illegitimate information
Defamation: Libel, Lies, and Slander… Oh My! What is slander/libel Libel Slander Why not more cases of libel are common Not worth it Even if one can prove the veritable nature of the claim, little will be rewarded for the plaintiff, However libel suit to journalist = distrust. Also, a journalist almost never recovers if facts are made up Other legal issues Liability for unlawfully acquired information Inciting risky behavior Copyright infringement Confidential sources CAN CAUSE PROF. JOURNALISTS TO CENSOR MORE IN FEAR OF PROSECUTION
Censorship and Realism “Objectivity as an ethical touchstone, as one of my sources said, is faltering in mainstream journalism. It doesn't provide the kind of guidance and direction that it once did…. Problems of finding a believable voice keep growing in mainstream journalism, and this is related to the shift in power.” --Jay Rosen, Associate professor of journalism at NYU, author of journalism blog Pressthink.orgPressthink.org Some places known for taking sides Against Journalist Codes Jeremy Glick v. Bill O’Reiley: ~2:38 YouTube exampleYouTube example “Some People Say” YouTube exampleYouTube example Problems with sources Incident with CNN Reporter Controversial CNN Reporter Takes A Vacation
Misleading Info. & Alterations Factcheck.org (http://www.factcheck.org) Site that shows what mass media is showing compared to what the real facts are Brought by the University of Pennsylvania’s Annenburg Public Policy Center; Project of theirs SourceWatch.org and PR Watch.org Same idea Like Wikipedia do have ground rules sourcewatch.org Photo editing photopocus.com--photo retouching and manipulation Dartmouth--George W. Bush Creates distrust especially today with Photoshop as well as people who know how to use it Some magazines who doctor photos put in disclaimer to avoid prosecution Anybody can do this, though; not just magazines Orange Rainbow
Concluding Education & Credibility “One of the most powerful and enduring raps on mainstream media is that it identifies too much with the people and institutions it cover and too little with the readers who pay good money for subscriptions.” Coverage of airlines, banks, and casinos—all of which is habitually more concerned with corporate earnings than customer service—epitomizes that trend. “The trick,” Johnston wrote, “is a change in perspective” that reframes the news around audiences, rather than sources.” ~Curtis Brainard, Columbia Journalism Review
Citizen Journalism (in essence) Citizen journalism has been around since communication began Technologies have and will continue to allow citizen journalism to develop and become even more prevalent in society Issues of credibility and mediation remain unsolved Citizen Journalism vs. Traditional Journalism Which do you prefer?
“Bibliography” (Offline Sources) Carpenter, Serena. "How Online Citizen Journalism Publications and Online Newspapers Utilize Objectivity Standard." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 85.3 (2008): 531-542. Harper, Christopher. "Journalism in the Digital Age." Democracy and the New Media Ed. Henry Jenkins, David Thorburn. Cambridge: 2003. 271-280. Henry, Neil. American Carnival: Journalism under siege in an age of New Media. Berkley: University of California Press, 2007. Pavlik, John. Journalism and new media. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Regan, Tom. "Newspaper failures are old news. Time to focus on solutions." Christian Science Monitor 12 Mar. 2009: 16.